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Thermal Physics (J1 H2)
Transcript of Thermal Physics (J1 H2)
Sum of a random distribution of microscopic KE and PE associated with the body's molecules -> U = KE + PE Increase in temp
-> increase in average KE of molecules
-> increase in internal energy of body Heat transfer: Flow of internal energy between bodies of different temperature (i.e. net flow from body of higher T to lower T) Thermal Equilibrium: No net heat flow between 2 bodies in thermal contact Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If bodies A and B are each separately in thermal equilibrium with body C, then A and B are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. Empirical Temperature Scale vs. Thermodynamic Temperature Scale
ºC +273.15 = K Heat capacity & Specific heat capacity
q = C ∆T = m c ∆T
Latent heat of fusion & vaporisation
q = mL
Energy supplied by heater = heat energy gained by object(s) + latent heat energy + heat loss to surroundings
-> IVt = m c ∆T + mL + H
1st junction - temp probe
2nd junction - reference junction (at known temp)
(3) 1st law of Thermodynamics Increase in internal energy of system = heat supplied to system + work done on system
-> ∆U = q + W W = p∆V
(for constant pressure, i.e. isobaric process)
Work done = Area under p-V graph p α 1/V (isothermal process)
V α T (isobaric process)
p α T (isovolumetric process) pV = nRT pV = NkT ∆U = 3NkT/2 = 3nRT/2