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Cloning & Genetic Choices

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Samantha Noll

on 24 October 2018

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Transcript of Cloning & Genetic Choices

Class Today
Overview of Cloning as a Reproduction Technology
Ethical Positions Concerning Cloning
Case Study Analysis
Cloning: Public Debate
The creation of a genetic duplicate of an adult mammal or human has provoked the most public attention to this process.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
Cloning: Arguments For
The Benefits Argument:
For some, the only hope of having a child that they are genetically related would be through cloning.
Attendance
1) Log into Top Hat
2) Type in the following code: 2572

(You can also text 2572 to (315) 636-0905)
Cloning: Definition
Cloning (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the asexual production of a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another.

Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows.
Ethics & Cloning
Bioethics Lecture Twenty two
The financier J.P. Morgan had a custom-made limousine built for himself with an extra-high roof that allowed him to ride in style without having to take off his top hat
Dolly
Dolly was the first mammal cloned (in 1996) from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.
Clone: Definition
In humans & other animals, the genetic blueprint for an individual is in each of it's cells.
The clone contains the same genetic blueprint of the clone's progenitor.
Cloning: Important Facts
An animal or human clone is not a perfect copy of an individual, but simply shares the same genetic blueprint.
Different personalities, markings etc.
Cloned cows, producing high protein milk.
Cloning: Important Facts
Clones appear naturally, in the form of identical twins.
Scientists have been cloning human & animal cells for research purposes for years.
Cattle, goats, pigs, cats, rabbits, mice, and more...
1) Extract the DNA-packed nucleus from an egg sell.
2) Replace the egg's nucleus with the donor nucleus of an ordinary body (somatic) cell from the adult individual to be cloned.

3) Stimulate the reconfigured cell with chemicals or electricity to start cell division and growth to the embryo stage.

4) Transfer the cloned embryo to a host uterus for development and birth.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
Both scientists & policy makers have serious concerns about human cloning.
Cloning:
Important Facts
Genetic Fallacy:
That genes make the person, that genetics determines all of an individual's characteristics.
Various Factors:
Different Nutritional Values
Different Environmental factors
Different Societal Inputs
Some men have no sperm
Some women have no eggs
Some parents could pass on a genetic disease or health risk
Cloning: Arguments For
Parents who have lost a child could clone him/her-- ensuring that some part of the child lives on.
Cloning: Arguments For
Robertson's "Procreative Liberty" Position Applied to Cloning
We currently have a fundamental freedom to
1) reproduce or 2) to not reproduce.
Equates
The
"right"
to make reproductive choices without interference from others.
Cloning: Arguments For
In the case of cloning, many use the same argument.
P1)
People have a basic right to reproductive liberty.
P2)
Cloning is a reproductive technology
(covered under this right).
C1)
Therefore, people have a basic right to cloning technology.
Cloning: Counter-Argument

What about the rights of the clone?
Argument 1: Cloning violates the right of people to a unique identity.
Counter-argument: Genetic uniqueness is neither necessary nor sufficient for making an individual unique.
What about the rights of the clone?
Cloning: Counter-Argument
Argument 2: Cloning is wrong because it violates the "right to ignorance" or "right to a unique future."
The younger clone will live in the shadow of the older twin.
Cloning: Counter-Argument
Would the younger clone's right to ignorance or to an open future be violated just because she believes her future is fated?
?
Cloning: Counter-Argument
Cloning is wrong because it is not "natural."
Natural is often defined as a) occurring in nature or b) acting according to one's function.
"Natural function": Belly rumbling etc..
Is cloning unnatural?
Is this an adequate counter-argument?
Anderson's "Commodity" argument: Surrogacy reduces the mothers and babies to market commodities.
The same argument holds for clones.
Cloning: Counter-Argument
But is a human being created by cloning less worthy of respect?
Cloning: Applying Major Theories
Utilitarianism:
Cloning is acceptable if benefits more people than it harms.
Suffering of all produced clones
Benefits
Case Study: Who Owns (Self) Cloning Cells?
Case Study: Henrietta Lacks
1) Should donors have to provide consent for the use of their cells?
Apply medical principles.
Apply utilitarianism to this case.
Apply Kantian ethics to this case.

2) Were the doctors acting ethically when they took the cells?

3) Apply this case to cloned organisms. Should informed consent be mandatory in such cases?

4) Is cloning ethical?
Case Study: Human Cloning Scientist facing Media
Case Study: Human Cloning Scientist facing Media
1) Apply a procreative rights position to this case. Is cloning ethical?
2) What about from a utilitarian position?
3) If success rates increased, would this change the calculus?
4) What do you think? What are some of the ethical issues with cloning?
5) As a medical professional, would you support this technology?
Final Question
Should cloning be used to produce organs for transfer?
Full transcript