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Japanese Immigration to Canada from 1850 to 1920
Transcript of Japanese Immigration to Canada from 1850 to 1920
from 1850 to 1920 Why did the Japanese
leave everything, and
travel to Canada to
a new life? What was their voyage to Canada like? What experiences did
these immigrants have once
they arrived in Canada? Where did the Japanese
settle in Canada? Why? What job opportunities did the
Japanese have in Canada? What were their working conditions like? Comparison
of wages &
Canadians Why/how did immigration
laws change with regard
to Japanese immigrants?
Was this fair, in your
opinion? Chart Showing Japanese
Immigration to Canada What contributions
did the Japanese
immigrants make to
Canada? * The Japanese government banned its citizens from leaving Japan. This regulation was eased in 1889 & Japan even opened a consulate in Vancouver.
* Japanese emigrating to Canada were looking for new opportunities & a better life
*They were leaving a country where their opportunities were limited & living conditions were cramped Japanese immigrants
in Canada in sailing ships
in the 1900's The circumstances of their travel experience depended upon how
much money they had. Wealthier
Japanese emigrants enjoyed
more comfortable accommodation
aboard the ships. Poorer Japanese emigrants had a very basic travel experience.
What were the conditions of their journey? 1)The first wave of Japanese Immigrants:
1877 to 1908 *These people were young, mainly
literate young men.
*They came via Hawaii & worked
as fishermen or lumbermen.
*They lived along the Pacific
Coast of British Columbia. 2)Early 1900s - Japanese immigration
soaring as the numbers grow... *Some people along the West Coast
were upset & alarmed that the great
number of Japanese immigrants were
a threat to B.C.'s security.
*Many immigrants faced discrimination
& racism from the "white" members of
the society. Definitions:
-discrimination: to make unfavourable distinctions about another person
-racism:to show prejudice against a person or group because of a difference of race British
Columbia!! By 1901 there were nearly 5000 Japanese living in Canada.
Between 1905 and 1907 - even more Japanese arrived...the population rose to over 18,000 Most of these immigrants were farmers & fishermen back in Japan.
So they found jobs in B.C. in logging, mining and fishing.
A few were well educated & some were very wealthy.
Some Japanese immigrants started their own businesses! Ethnic Groups in British Columbia 1921 Total Numbers for Ten Largest Groups
** Please note: there were no Japanese listed within any other province in Canada!
Ethnic Groups Total Numbers
Other European 13.321
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/image1891/table.html The first official Japanese
immigrant to Canada was
Manzo Nagano. He settled in New
Westminster in 1877. (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr A TIMELINE OF JAPANESE IMMIGRATION TO CANAD 1895 - BC government denied franchise to any citizen of Asian descent 1900 - (April to June) - 7,682 Japanese arrived in B.C. Many of these were going to the U.S. 1901 to 1904 - Only 6 Japanese immigrated... 1902 - Tomekichi Homma, a naturalized Canadadian tried to vote. This issue was taken to the BC court where it was determined that he could not vote, hold public office or become an architect, lawyer, teacher or chartered accountant. 1904 - Japanese Canadians farmers settled in Fraser Valley, becoming successful berry growers 1889 - Japan eased its ban on
emigration & opened a consulate in
Vancouver 1891 - no official number in Canada census,
but anecdotal evidence does mention
Japanese 1889 & 1900 - 5,587 Japanese left Japan for
Canada 1890's - Japanese immigrants established stores, boarding houses and other businesses along streets that were adjacent to Hastings Mill in Vancouver. - Powell Street would become major settlement of Japanese Canadians until WW2 1905 - First Canadian Buddhist temple opened in Vancouver-Ishikawa Hotel-on Powell Street 1906 - Japanese Consulate started first Japanese language school in Vancouver 1907 - Anti-Asian riot in Vancouver which destroyed/damaged Asian businesses 1908 - Japanese immigration restricted to 400 male immigrants & domestic servants each year - This was called the Hayashi-Lemieux "Gentlemen's Agreement" - A new system of marriage called "Picture Brides" became a popular way for Japanese-Canadian men to marry 1914 - World War One started! 1916 - 200 Japanese volunteers who wanted to fight in WW1 were rejected in B.C.,but went to Alberta to enlist & were sent to Europe 1917 - The survivors from this group were promised the right to vote in B.C. 1919 - The number of fishing licenses for "non white" fishermen in B.C. was reduced. Over the next five years these licenses continued to be reduced. 1920 - First Japanese-Canadian union was formed by Japanese-Canadian mill workers 1921 - Asiatic Exclusion League formed Japanese Sawmill Workers Japanese worked in forestry -
as loggers & at sawmills. They also worked as miners! Many Japanese became fishermen. The working conditions for many Japanese were difficult. They lived simply and didn't have
any luxuries like me do today. * Asians - Japanese & Chinese were paid differently than the Europeans.
* Asians were paid lower wages to do the same job as Europeans.
* For example - Railway workers were paid 1/3 less than Europeans. They also were overcharged for their simple meals & very basic accommodation. * Japanese workers worked really hard to receive very low wages! Sometimes their jobs could be very dangerous... "...They came cheap, at one-third the pay of Whites, purchased their own gear as well, and did dangerous and deadly work that Whites refused to do. The practice of hiring Asians spread to the mines, sawmills and logging camps, and canneries. Again, employers found the Chinese, Indian and Japanese willing to put in longer hours for less pay and to take seasonal work. Of course, these workers were exploited in turn by middlemen, usually kinfolk, who did the contracting and who were foremen for White owners."
http://asia-canada.ca/changing-perspectives/chinese/chinese-labour-builds-cpr * The white population became afraid of what they saw as an "Asian Invasion".
* The whites put limits on the number of Japanese that come immigrate into Canada.
* The government also charged Asians who wanted to enter Canada. NO!!! This was awful. The Japanese were discriminated against and that shouldn't have happened. They opened many businesses including: groceries, restaurants, pharmacies and clothing stores.
They became an important part of B.C.'s resource industries, working in: forestry, mining, agriculture, and fishing.
They became proud Japanese-Canadian citizens of B.C. A Timeline Showing Japanese Immigration Into British Columbia The End