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Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution
by

Ashley Britton

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
In Europe 6. Textile Industry and Factory System Iron and Coal The Industrial Revolution Film Clip: The Dawn of the Industrial Revolution WD--The period from the 1780’s to 1900’s when the manufacture of goods by extensive mechanization of production The shift, beginning in England in the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Why did the Industrial Revolution start in Britain? Napoleon became emperor and the French armies were victorious for the early 1800s.
The French navy blockaded Britain and forced the British to produce more food. Britain attacked France and became involved in a long war. England - huge increase in population in the late 1760s.

More people need more food.

The French blockade meant that the British had to produce more food.

Large landowners chase small tenant farmers (renters) off their lands to try to make the most profit from the increased price of food. 1. Population Explosion 2Many farmers moving to the cities for jobs
Increase in food production provides more food to cities
Effect: Cities provide cheap source of labor for factories Large population of workers: The large landowners consolidate
their property into enclosures –
land that is walled off.

Increased technology and new inventions make the British farmers the most productive in the world. Fewer farmers can now produce more food than ever before.

This allows the rural population to feed a growing urban population. 2. Britain’s Agricultural Revolution Wealthy land owners bought up land from small farmers and enclosed it with fences, therefore increasing their acreage
Effects:
land owners experiment with new techniques, technology, and crops to be more productive (crop rotation, seed drill, turnips)
small farmers forced to move to the cities Enclosure results in Urbanization The changes in the way the people in Britain farmed resulted in huge increases in the amount of food that the land produced. New crops such as corn and potatoes were introduced that increased the amount of food that Britain produced. The landlords started crop rotation. They would change the crops that they would plant in different fields to make sure that the fields retained their nutrients. Agricultural Revolution England has lots of water power and coal to fuel the machines
Has iron ore for construction of tools and machines, and buildings
Has rivers for transportation
Has many harbors for ships 3. Abundant Natural Resources 4. Economic stability-
Many investors, highly developed banking system
Overseas trade, increasing prosperity
5. Political stability-
Fought wars on foreign soil
Successful military and government gave citizens a positive attitude
Parliament passed laws helping businesses. Capitalists (businessmen) started businesses by taking wool and flax to the cottages (homes) of peasant spinners.
After the wool and flax were spun and carded, the capitalists would then take it to the weavers.
Then he would get the cloth made into clothing and sell it for a profit.
Merchants Role
supplied materials – wool and cotton
transported supplies
merchants make profits
Capitalism
private ownership, free competition, and profit
cottage industry early example of capitalism
Effects of the Cottage Industry
big profits for new class of merchants
alternative source of income for peasants Cottage Industry and Early Capitalism = factory system + building + machines + raw materials workers Entrepreneurs decided to combine all of the factors of production into one place The Factory System The start of the industrial revolution was helped by many brilliant people making key inventions… Film Clip: Factory Work James Hargreaves designed the spinning jenny
it did the work of eight spinners “clean cotton” comes out without the seeds Cotton with its seeds go in this side What is this machine? Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin Increased the demand for slave labor on American plantations
Less slaves needed to process cotton, BUT more fields planted, therefore more slaves needed in fields
South needed slaves to process cotton, therefore fought Civil War to keep their slaves
Britain (in 1833), then US (after Civil War) outlawed slavery Effect of IR on Slavery
Textile Industry Invented cottages couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles new machines make textiles quicker
a. James Hargreaves – spinning jenny allowed one worker to do the work of 8 spinners
b. James Watt – steam engine that used less energy
c. Eli Whitney – cotton gin and interchangeable parts
d. Henry Bessemer – added air to making iron, which made the iron goods stronger and easier to shape
e. Louis Pasteur – pasteurized goods (took out bacteria)
f. Thomas Edison – many inventions, including electric bulb and phonograph B Rise of the Factory
new machines, often too big for homes, were put in factories
located near power source: coal, iron, water
C. Effects of Textile Factories in Britain
Amount of textiles increased and prices lowered
most villagers leave home to find work in urban factories Early factories used
water power Energy for the Industrial Revolution
Steam Engine built for increasing need for power
Steam forced from high to low pressure produces power
Steam Engine improved mining which increased metals Steam Engine Coal could also be used to produce steam power. The use of iron was essential in the industrial revolution. Iron was a very hard metal that could be used to make strong machines.
The problem was that iron needed carbon added to it to be flexible and durable. British engineers learned that coal could be used for energy and carbon. It burned slowly and had the carbon needed to make iron. many workers die because of dangerous machinery The British used iron to build the world’s most powerful navy.
This navy controlled the world’s oceans using coal for energy. Iron and Coal: Energy of the Industrial Revolution Play Coal Mining Video Energy for the Industrial Revolution
The Need for Iron
farming tools, new factory machinery, railways
The Need for Coal
steam engines powered by coal
Effect of Iron and Coal
Britain produced more iron than rest of the world
coal powered Britain’s enormous navy the Bessemer Process added air to iron smelting, making the iron easier to mold and stronger 7. Transportation In addition to railroads, the British also constructed canals and better roads to meet the demands of the new businesses. Goods and people could travel quickly and cheaply across the country. Soon railroads covered Britain. In 1829 Stephenson invented the steam locomotive. Before the industrial revolution merchants used to transport goods by horse or mule cart over poor roads.
Merchants had to wait for good weather to travel.
The industrial revolution needed quicker, cheaper, and more reliable forms of transportation. 7. Transportation Show Transportation Video Watt’s steam engine could be used in steamboats and railroads
Robert Fulton’s Clermont-1st steamboat on Hudson River. Water Transportation Railroads-1804-first steam-powered locomotive-5 mph
1840-2,000 miles of railroad in England-50mph. Advancements in transportation Industrial Revolution needed more raw materials from Asia, Africa, and Americas
Used advanced transportation like steamships to get these raw materials to industrialized nations faster
Less expensive transportation led to lower prices
Worldwide markets led to more sales Effects of Advancements in Transportation Film Clip: The Development of Cities rapid urbanization led to crowded and dirty cities that were unhealthy Effects of the Industrial Revolution parents have to work two jobs and can not feed and raise children – many live on the streets and join gangs whole families are forced to work in factories destroyed social order Effects of the Industrial Revolution many poor families need their children to work long and dangerous hours at jobs that pay very little Effects of the Industrial Revolution workers eventually join unions to fight for better wages, shorter working days, and safer working conditions Effects of the Industrial Revolution Positive Effects
a new middle class developed to
serve the interests of the owners
shopping – more goods were made for
much cheaper and many people could
afford goods that they would never
have been able to before
medical care and city planning improved
new inventions improved the quality of life Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Positive
more jobs and money for a country
encouraged invention and technology
cheaper products
raised standards of living
led to more educational opportunities
Negative
pollution – air, water, and land
slums – overcrowding in cities and towns
child labor
Diseases
class tension
de-skilling of labor (Luddites) What were the effects of the Industrial Revolution?
USA
War of 1812 forces Americans to buy USA-made goods
Samuel Slater brings designs for factory to the USA
first factories built in New England
after Civil War (1865), USA becomes industrial country because of large population and many natural resources How did the industrial revolution spread?
USA
War of 1812 forces Americans to buy USA-made goods
Samuel Slater brings designs for factory to the USA
first factories built in New England
after Civil War (1865), USA becomes industrial country because of large population and many natural resources
Europe
other European countries were slower to industrialize because of; Napoleonic Wars, inflexible social structures, or geography that made transportation difficult
by 1850s many European countries had industrialized
by the late 1880s, countries like Germany and France were starting to become industrial and military powers How did the industrial revolution spread?
Philosophers try to explain changes
capitalism – private ownership and profits for owners
utilitarianism – best interests of society
utopianism – ideal communities
socialism – public ownership and operation for general good
communism – no private ownership, everything shared
The Arts reflect changes
Neoclassical – before industrial revolution, focused on order and harmony in society
Romantic – turned away from society’s order and focused on nature and individual’s emotions
Realistic – turned away from the escapism of the Romantics and tried to reflect the reality of life in industrial society How did people react to the new society? Adam Smith (1723-1790)
“Father of economics”
The ‘economic” case for classical liberalism
Private property, markets, and trade  wealth and prosperity A Fourth Criteria: Prosperity Beginning of “economics”
Profound influence on British and American political policies
What did it claim?
Free trade
Limited government
Competition
Open markets
That’s classical liberalism Smith’s An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) Markets “encourage every man to apply himself to particular occupation, and to cultivate and bring to perfection whatever talent or genius he may possess.”

“[T]he most dissimilar geniuses are of use to one another; the different produces of their respective talents […] being brought, as it were, into a common stock, where every man may purchase whatever part of the produce of other man’s talents he has occasion for.”

Thus: markets  opportunities  choices  diversity Why Free Markets? Predictions from Marx’s
1843 Communist Manifesto:
Smithian “political economy” will: concentrate power and property in the hands of a few and lead to only two classes, the propertied and the propertyless.
The “ideologies” of free trade and free competition enslave workers, rendering them powerless against and exploited by employers.
Workers’ wages will steadily decline to “subsistence” levels; standard of living falls as well.
Instead of greed-driven and alienating “market forces,” the “most advanced and resolute” intellectuals must “wrest” “all capital from the bourgeoisie” and “centralise all instruments production in the hands of the state.” Communist Manifesto Scientific Advancement Louis Pasteur- He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to treat milk and wine in order to prevent it from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization. Edward Jenner- was an English physician and scientist from Berkeley, Gloucestershire, who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine. He is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other man"
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