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Jelly Roll Morton
Transcript of Jelly Roll Morton
Black Bottom Stomp (1926) The Ragtime Genre New Orleans The Recording Recording Technology The Band Trumpet George Mitchell
Trombone Edward ‘Kid’ Ory
Clarinet Omer Simeon
Piano Jelly Roll Morton
Banjo Johnny St. Cyr
Double Bass John Lindsay
Drums Andrew Hilare
The Musicians Jelly Roll Morton Himself Ragtime could be heard as early as the 1880's in camps
of workers building the great railroads across the
American continent Ragtime is a highly syncopated style of jazz
and it supported the 'stride piano movement'
of the 1920's In 1896 the first peices labelled 'Ragtime' were published. As piano rolls and sheet music appeared at the turn of the century, a ragtime fad swept the nation Ragtime used Ensemble Improvisation Ragtime relyed heavily on the blues Ragtime began in New Orleans This is when the whole group of musicians improvise all at the same time Ragtime is chronologically one of the first developments of 'Jazz'. Improvisation Creating a piece of music without premeditation
Making music ‘On the Spot’
Using your own resources to create something new and fresh
Speaking from your heart
“Taking a scale and making it wail” (Louis Armstrong)
At the turn of the twentieth Century conditions were 'ripe'
for the development of Jazz. New Orleans was a thriving port of immigration, where Americans lived side by side with Africans, Italians, Germans, Irish, French, Mexicans and Cubans. This unprecidented ethnic diversity allowed for a free and easy mingling of musical ideas between cultures. Concepts of Polyrhythm and improvisation within group participation is something that was inherent in west african drumming ensembles These african drumming concepts are now a
deep foundation on which most popular
music is based. As a young man he spent much of his time in the red-light district of Storyville, particularly the white part where few black musicians would go Not only one of the most colourful personalities in early jazz, but also its first great composer There he worked as a pianist in the local brothels, and several of his ragtime pieces were published in the first decade of the 20th century. (Born 1885 - died 1941) Ultimately his family disowned
him and he left New Orleans
when Storyville was closed
down in 1917. After travelling widely, Morton settled in Chicago in 1923 where a huge public demand for jazz was growing rapidly Morton later exaggerated his role in the development of jazz, claiming to have invented it single-handedly in 1902. nevertheless, his contribution as the first great jazz composer was considerable. He composed, published, cut piano rolls (one of the precursors of the gramophone record) and later made studio recordings of his works Jelly Roll Morton experimented with structure, breaking away from the predictability of ragtime and interspersing the passages of collective improvisation characteristic of New Orleans jazz with short solo sections. Morton’s Chicago recordings established new standards of professionalism and ensemble in jazz. However, by the end of the 1920’s, Morton’s style of jazz was eclipsed in popularity by the easy melodic style of the big bands with their sophisticated harmonies and instrumentation.
Black Bottom Stomp was a reworking of a
composition written the previous year
called Queen of Spades.
The new title was designed to exploit the latest dance craze, the Black Bottom Morton demanded high standards from his players. The Red Hot Peppers was not a regular band but a group formed specifically for recording He was able to recruit some of the best players of the day and rehearsals were sponsored by his publishers, allowing the music to be fully prepared.
Black Bottom Stomp is only 3 minutes long, but Morton squeezes in a huge amount of detail, with solos for each of the main instruments A large element of pre-composition was involved due to the complex arrangement and demand for a high degree of ensemble at fast speeds. Although the players were well accustomed to improvising.
In the 1920's the most popular and commercially
viable way to record was onto 'Gramaphone' this
was folled by the indroduction of 'Radio Broadcasting'
The original disc used to record on was called a 'Shellac Disc'.
This was named after the Shellac wax used to etch the recording into for the master disc. These discs would only record for 3 minutes,
which governed the length of the peices This meant that the musicians would have to
organise their music eficiently and compress
multiple ideas into a short amount of time Early acoustic recording suffered from problems
with balance. This is because soloists had to be placed close to the recording horn to be heard, this meant that the drum kit and bass were hard to record The band was called 'The Red Hot Peppers' Phonograph Cylinder The development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910 The first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877.