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CHAPTER-7 GRAMMAR

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by

Eyüp Dilber

on 30 March 2016

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Transcript of CHAPTER-7 GRAMMAR

Now,
how three words in this phrase can only be combined in a particular sequence.
well-formed phrase:

the lucky boys
Traditional grammar
Traditional grammar:
labels the grammatical categories
(“article,” “adjective” and “noun”)
has its origins in the description of languages such as Latin and Greek.
Agreement
Agreement categories of the traditional categories:
“number,”
“person,”
“tense,”
“voice”
“gender.”

e.g. the verb loves “agrees with” the noun Cathy in the sentence "
Cathy loves her dog.
"
Gender

grammatical gender
(in some languages)

based on the
type of noun (masculine and feminine)
and is not tied to sex.

So, nouns are classified according to their gender class.
Traditional analysis
In
traditional grammar books
:
the analysis of English verbs constructed by
analogy with tables in Latin grammar.

The verb amare (“to love”).
The prescriptive approach
GRAMMAR
So far,
two levels of description
used in the study of language:
1- linguistic expressions as sequences of
sounds represented in the phonetic alphabet
and described in terms of
their features
.
that is, English has
strict rules for combining words into phrases:
The article (the) must go before the adjective (lucky), which must go before the noun (boys).
Grammatical sequence:
article + adjective + noun
(*noun + article + adjective).
Latin and Greek were the languages of
philosophy, religion and scholarship,

So, the description of the basic grammatical components of these languages was taken to be the best model for other grammars.
The parts of speech
The lucky boys found a backpack
article adjective noun verb article noun
in the park and they
preposition article noun conjunction pronoun
opened it carefully
verb pronoun adverb
Nouns:
words used to refer to
people
(boy),
objects
(backpack),
creatures
(dog),
places
(school),
qualities
(roughness),
phenomena
(earthquake)
abstract ideas
(love)
Proper nouns
with a capital letter (Cathy, Latin, Rome).
Article:
words (a, an, the) used with nouns to form noun phrases
classifying
“things”
(You can have a banana or an apple)
or
identifying
them as already known (I’ll take the apple).
Agreement is based on:
the category of number
( singular or plural)
the category of person
(first person =
speaker
, second person =
hearer
and third person =
any others
).
the
verb
described in terms of another category called
tense
.
the verb
loves
is in the present tense and in the active voice.
Arabic:
masculine, feminine
the sun = feminine
the moon = masculine
However;
but the German noun
das Mädchen grammatically neuter
.
The French noun in
le livre (“the book”)
is
grammatically masculine.
(Present tense, active voice)
FPS: (I) love =
amo
SPS: (you) love =
amas
TPS: (she) loves =
amat
FPP: (we) love =
amamus
SPP: (you) love =
amatis
TPP: (they) love =
amant
The prescriptive approach:

the view of grammar as a set of rules for the proper use of a language.
One of the main characters of Star Trek Captain Kirk, always used the expression
To boldly go
. . .
Latin, ire (“to go”) and audacter (“boldly”)

Ire audacter.
Because the categories and rules of Latin grammar did n
ot seem to fit the structure of the native languages of North America
toward the end of the nineteenth century, a rather different method, called the d
escriptive approach, was adopted.
The descriptive approach
Structural analysis
Structural analysis:

one type of descriptive approach
its main concern is to
investigate the distribution of forms
in a language.
However, there are many forms that do not fit those test-frames.
e.g.
*someone, *a car.
*The Cathy or *The the dog.

Constituent analysis
Anohter descriptive aprroach:
constituent analysis.
The technique employed: to show how
small constituents
(or components) go together to form
larger constituents.

the phrase-like constituents:

noun phrases:
an old man, a shotgun, the wedding
a prepositional phrase:
to the wedding
a verb phrase:
brought a shotgun
A diagram showing
the distribution of the constituents at different levels
.
Determining the types of
forms to be
substituted for each other a
t different levels of constituent structure
Labeled and bracketed sentences
An alternative type of diagram is designed to show how the constituents in sentence
structure can be marked off by using labeled brackets.
With this procedure, the different constituents of the sentence are shown at
the word level
[the] or [dog],
the phrase level
[the dog], or [loved the girl
the sentence level
[The dog loved the girl].
We can then label each constituent using these abbreviated grammatical terms:
Art (= article)
V (=verb)
N (= noun)
VP (=verb phrase)
NP (=noun phrase)
S
(= sentence)
In the following figure, these labels are placed beside each bracket that marks the beginning of a constituent.
The result is a labeled and bracketed analysis of the constituent structure of the sentence.
Hierarchical organization
In performing this type of analysis,
we have not only labeled all the constituents,
we have revealed the hierarchical organization of those constituents.
A Gaelic sentence
Here is a sentence from Scottish Gaelic, which would be translated into English as:
“The boy saw the black dog.”
Chunnaic an gille an cu dubh
saw the boy the dog black
One obvious difference between the structure of this Gaelic sentence and its English counterpart is the fact that the verb comes first in the sentence.
Why study grammar?
It is not, of course, the aim of this type of analysis that we should be able to draw
complicated-looking diagrams in order to impress our friends. The aim is to make
explicit, via the diagram, what we believe to be the structure of grammatical sentences in the language.
2- the same linguistic expression as a sequence of morphemes.

the luck -y boy -s
functional lexical derivational lexical inflectional
( a voiced fricative
/ð/
, a voiceless stop
/k/
and a diphthong
/ɔɪ/
as segments in thetranscription of a phrase such as /ðəlʌkibɔɪz/.
English grammar
not well-formed phrases:
*boys the lucky
*lucky boys the

asterisk *
to indicate a form is unacceptble or ungrammatical
The grammar of a language
(English, Turkish, Kurdish, Russian, Arabic)
the process of describing the structure of phrases and sentences in
grammatical sequences or ungrammatical sequences
.
The expression
“grammar school”
originally used exclusively for an institution where Latin was taught.
Adjectives: words used, typically with nouns,
to
provide more information
about the things referred to (large objects, a strange experience).
Verbs:
refer to various kinds of actions (go, talk), states (be, have) involving people and things in events
(Jessica is ill and has a sore throat so she can’t talk or go anywhere).
Adverbs:
used, typically with verbs,
to provide
more information about actions, states and events
(slowly, yesterday).
Some adverbs
(really, very) are also used
with adjectives

to
modify information
about things
(Really large objects move slowly.
I had a very strange experience yesterday).
Prepositions
(at, in, on, near, with, without) used with nouns in phrases
information about time
(at five o’clock, in the morning),
place
(on the table, near the window)
other connections
involving actions and things
(with a knife, without a thought)
Pronouns:
(she, herself, they, it, you)
used
in place of noun phrases
,
typically referring to people and things
already known
(
She
talks to
herself
.
They
said
it
belonged to
you
).
Conjunctions:
(and, but, because, when)
used to
make connections
and
indicate relationships
between events
(Chantel’s husband was so sweet
and
he
helped her a lot
because
she couldn’t do much
when
she was pregnant).
English pronoun
s in terms of
person and number
.
I
(first person singular)
you
(second person singular)
he, she, it
(third person singular)

Cathy loves her dog
(the third singular person noun "Cathy", the verb loves “agree with” the noun.
natural gender

(mainly derived from a b
iological distinction
between
male and female.
things or creatures, when
the sex is unknown or irrelevant
(it, its).
Spanish:
masculine and feminine
el sol
(“the sun”)
la luna
(“the moon”).
German:
Feminine masculine, neuter
der Mond
(“the moon”)
die Sonne
(“the sun”)
das Feuer
(“the fire”)
Some familiar examples of prescriptive rules for English sentences are:
Y
ou must not split
an infinitive
You must not end
a sentence with a preposition
Mary runs faster than
me or I.
one should
never begin
a sentence
with and!
to
solemnly
swear
to
never ever
get back together
Who did you go
with?
to With
whom did you go?
Latin infinitives are single words and just do not split.
So, their structure can be compared as did the traditional grammarian in the 18th century England.
Analysts collected samples of the language they were interested in and attempted to
describe the regular structures of that language as it was used
, not according to some view of how it should be used.
The method involves the use of
“test-frames”,
which can be
sentences with empty slots
in them.
The _______________ makes a lot of noise.
I heard a _______________ yesterday.
forms
fitting into the slots
to produce good
grammatical sentences
of English
(e.g. car, child, donkey, dog, radio).
For these forms, we require different test-frames:
_____________ makes a lot of noise.
I heard _______________ yesterday.
the big dog,
an old car,
Ani Difranco,
the professor with the Scottish accent,

with the same grammatical category, traditionally described as
“noun phrase.”
"it"
fits in this second set of test-frames, and not in the first set
(
*The it makes a lot of noise
),
In the older analysis, Latin-influenced, pronouns: “words used in place of nouns.”
more accurate:
in place of noun phrases (not just nouns)."
If all these
forms fit in the same test-frame
, they are likely to be examples of
the same grammatical category
, traditionally described as “noun.”
nine constituents
at the
word level
:
An old man brought a shotgun to the wedding.
How do those nine constituents
go together
to form constituents at
the phrase level
?
Does it seem appropriate to put the words together as follows?
An old man brought brought a shotgun to to the
One advantage of this type of analysis:
it shows rather clearly that
proper nouns or names: (Gwen, Kingston)
pronouns (I, him, her),
though they are
single words,
can be used as noun phrases and fill the same constituent space
as longer phrases

(e.g. an old man or the woman).
The first step is to put brackets
(one on each side) round each constituent, and then more brackets round each
combination of constituents
In this hierarchy,
the sentence (S) is higher than and contains the noun phrase (NP).
The noun phrase (NP) is higher than and contains the noun (N).

We can also see that the sentence (S)
contains a verb phrase (VP), which contains a verb (V) and another noun phrase(NP).
note that constituent analysis is not only
useful for describing the structure of English sentences.
We can take a sample sentence from a language with a grammatical structure that is really quite different from English and apply the same type of analysis.
Another noticeable
feature is that, when an adjective is used, it goes after the noun and not before it. We
can represent these structural observations in a labeled and bracketed diagram
(Figure 7.6).
The diagram in Figure 7.6 makes it clear that this Gaelic sentence is organized
with a V NP NP structure, which is rather different from the NP V NP structure we
found in the English sentence analyzed earlier.
It also enables us to describe clearly how English sentences are put together as combinations of phrases that, in turn, are combinations of words. We
can then look at similar descriptions of sentences in other languages such as Gaelic,
Japanese or Spanish and see clearly what structural differences exist.
At a very practical level, it may help us to understand why a Spanish learner of English produces phrases like *the wine red (instead of the red wine),
using a structural organization of constituents that is possible in Spanish, but not in English.
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