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Fiber Optic Internet

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Luc Cronenberg

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Fiber Optic Internet

Fiber Optic Internet
You hear about fiber optic cables whenever people talk about the internet, the cable televisions system or the telephone system.
Fiber optics cables are wires as thin as a human hair, that can carry digital data over long distances. It is also used in the medical and engineering world.

In this Prezi I will look at how these wires are capable of such things and I will look in more detail at fiber optic internet.
What is Fiber Optic
To know how Fiber optic is used with internet I will first have a look at how it is constructed and how it works
Fiber optics are long, thin wires made out of pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to send light signals over long distances.

How does it work
What are fiber optics?
If you zoom in on an optical fiber, you
will see the following parts:

The Core
- Very thin glass in the center of the fiber where the light travels
The Cladding
- A material surrounding the glass that reflects the light back into the core.
The Buffer Coating
- A plastic layer that protects the fiber against damage and moisture.

Hundreds or thousands of those fibers bonded together forms a optical cable. The bundles get protected by a covering called a jacket
Two types optical fiber

There are two types of optical fiber:
Single-mode fibers
Multi-mode fibers
The difference is basically the size of the core.
Both have their advantages and disadvantages

Single Mode fiber(SMF)
A single mode fiber has a core of 9 micron in diameter (1000 micron is 1 mm), and because it is that small it allows only 1 mode/ray of light to go through.
SMF can support distances of over several thousands kilometers.
The downside of SMF is that the light that you send through the cable, usually an infrared laser, has to be of a high frequency wave so it fits in the fiber. This is much more expensive than the light you send through a MMF.
Multi-Mode Fiber(MMF)
A Multi-Mode fiber is designed for cheaper light sources. The core has a diameter of 62.5 microns, making it useable for multiple rays to go through. Because it is relatively thick it is suitable for LED light to go through
The downside of MMF is that it has a limited range of 500 meters.
How does a optical fiber transfer light?

The light in a fiber optic cable travels through the core, constantly bouncing from the cladding. This occurs because of total internal reflection.
Total internal reflection is as a light travels through a medium and it does not go through but reflects. To do so the light has to be at an angle greater than the critical angle. In this case, because the cladding has a lower refractive index and it does not absorb light, light rays reflect back into the core.
However, if the light has to travel very long distances little bits can fade out.
Fiber optic relay system

A fiber optic relay system consists of:

A transmitter - A laser or LED that sends the light into the fiber optic cable.
An optical Fiber
An optical Regenerator - An optical regenerator is used when signal loss occurs. It is a coating made out of a special material, that amplifies the light if it passes through
An optical Receiver - A machine that receives and decodes the incoming light.

How can we send data over optical cables?

It depends on what kind of data you want to send over an optical cable, but it will always go in the same way. Everything you want to send over an optic cable has to be translated in binary code, so everything has to be represented en 1s and 0s. Because digital signals as computer programming and internet are already in 1s and 0s this is no problem, but for analogue systems as telephoning it is harder.
Eventually to send the data a 1 is a flash in the cable and the 0 is nothing. Because the receiver knows the same code/language it can translate it back into an internet page, a video or even a television program.

Convert an analogue signal to a digital signal

To be able to send a analogue signal over an optical cable we have to translate it in a digital signal. I will give an easy example.
We have 16 different volume levels we want to send over the cable numbered 0 to 15, in random order.
Because there are 16 numbers we use a 4-bits code. Now we take a couple samples of the analogue signal and translate them in binary code.
The final code will be send through the cable and at his final destination, it can be translated back into different volumes.

Fiber optic broadband is the newest technology for broadband internet, and is constructed all over the world. Is this however smart?, and are there any disadvantages of fiber optic broadband? How does it affect the economy?
Fiber optic broadband
What are the pros and cons
Fiber optic broadband internet has several pros and cons. Though the technology provides internet speed that are much faster than other broadband services, there are still problems with the infrastructure of Fiber optic broadband. Unlike digital subscriber line (DSL), Fiber broadband has, if there were no money issues, a unlimited range without any degradation in signal strength.

The primary advantage of fiber optic internet broadband is the high bandwidth capacity. In theory optical cables can carry up to 100.000 times more data than copper cables.
Fiber optic broadband has a very high signal reliability. Optical signals do not suffer from electromagnetic interference. Also the signal loss is much lower than DSL because of the long distances it can travel.
Because the core is so minuscule the weight and size are much smaller. 1 kilometer fiber optic would weight around 6 kilograms and 1 kilometer copper cable as much as 1000 kilograms

There is a limited access. It is estimated that around 50% of the UK can access fiber broadband, so 50% cannot. However the network is still expanding and the government has an £830 mil. strategy to provide the best broadband in Europe by 2015.
The costs are much higher than DSL.
What are the effects of faster internet?
The future of fiber optic broadband

Recently there has been a study to quantify the impact of broadband speed on household income.
The study used 8 OECD countries, and 3 BIC countries, to look at how the differ.
The results show that the higher the internet speed is the higher income you have. However, There is a minimum broadband access and speed level required in order to gain any benefit.

The findings of the study represented a unique view on the effect of broadband on household income. In OECD countries and in BIC countries. The results show that the impact of having better access to broadband and speed upgrades is positive.
Why does broadband speed increase the income?

There are a couple reasons for the result of this study. Firstly, faster internet will give you access to more advanced services. For example, videoconferencing. Without fast internet this would not be possible, this enables more effective and productive ways of working. Faster internet will also make

There are several reasons as to why households benefit from
increased broadband speed. Firstly, gaining access to more advanced
services, e.g. videoconferencing, enables more effective, productive ways of working. Increasing broadband speed also boosts personal productivity and teleworking and telecommuting allow for more flexible work arrangements.s sd
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