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Chapter 10

Psychology- Cassie, Maddi and Maria

Maria O'Shaughnessy

on 1 February 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 10

Maria, Maddi, and Cassie Infancy and Childhood Nature/Nurture Controversy Contrasting views of how we gain certain characteristics Twins: Dizygotic twins: twins who develop from
different eggs fertilized by different sperm; they
are not identical in their genetic makeup

Monozygotic twins: twins who develop from one
fertilized egg; they are identical in the genetic
makeup Maturation: The automatic, orderly, sequential
process of physical and mental development

Growth cycles: Orderly patterns of development

Imprinting: A biological process in which the young
of certain species follow and become attached to their mothers Nature- refers to heredity
Nurture- refers to environment Example: Environment/Nurture-
plays a large part in the development

Physical Factor/Nature -
What is natural, things that do not depend
primarily on learning Definitions: Parenting Styles: Permissive Parenting Style: Parenting style in which parents let children do as they wish; few rules are made of
enforce Authoritarian (Dictorial)
parenting style:
Parenting style in
which parents rigidly
set the rules and
demand obedience Authoritative parenting style: Parenting style in which parents seek input from children; parents are consistent but flexible in enforcing. Child Abuse: In America, there are two and a half million cases of child
abuse and serious child neglect are reported each year.
In one million of these cases, the abuse has been verified
by an official agency. Child abuse includes broken bones, bruises all over the body, severe burns, and extreme psychological trauma. There are 1400 deaths from this each year. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development: lights, sounds. smells
tastes, world of sensations
separation anxiety Preoperational:
no reversibility or
conservation skills.
self-involved Concrete operations:
Reversibility well established
able to view world more from
different perspectives Formal Operations:
Growing ability to think
abstractly and symbolically Focus: Overview and Applying: The child within- It is no longer believed that we were all just
miniature adults when we were children. The five most critical
years of a child's life are in the first five years.

Important discoveries: Parents don't simply control everything, the child also influences parents.
-Who the child hangs out with influences more than the parents in most cases.
-Genetic factors play an important role in what we are.
Full transcript