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Space Part 3: Events on Earth and in the Sky

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Erin Dohaney

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Space Part 3: Events on Earth and in the Sky

Day and Night
Each morning, the Sun appears to rise in the east and set in the West in the evening. At night, the Moon and stars seem to rise in the east and set in the west in the morning. What causes this constant movement above us?
Day and Night
It is the rotation, or spinning, of the Earth, that causes us to have day and night.
Earth rotates in a counter-clockwise direction as seen looking down from the North Pole.

When Earth rotates your side of the globe toward the Sun, you experience daytime. As Earth continues to spin, the Sun disappears from view and you experience nighttime as you face away from the Sun.
Day and Night
We define the length of one day to be exactly 24 hours. This is the average amount of time it takes for the Earth to make one complete rotation on its axis.
The Four Seasons
It surprises most people to find out that New Brunswick and the rest of Canada are actually closer to the Sun in the wintertime than in the summertime. Why do you think we are further away from the sun during the hottest time of the year?
Space Part 3:
Events on Earth and in the Sky

The Four Seasons
The answer to the previous question can be explained by the fact that seasons are not caused by our distance from the Sun.

Seasons happen because of the tilt of the Earth on it's axis.

The Earth's axis is an imaginary straight line from the North Pole to the South Pole. It is tilted at 23.5 degrees
The Season Reason
As Earth rotates on its axis, it also travels in an oval-shaped path around the sun. This path is called an

Earth takes 365 days, or one year, to complete one full orbit of the Sun.

While Earth moves around this orbit, the tilt, or axis, of the Earth never changes.

The Season Reason
In the summer months in Canada, the axis is pointed toward the sun.

In winter in Canada, the axis is pointed away from the sun.

As a result of this tilt, in the winter, sunlight is spread out over a larger area, so it is colder. In the summer, sunlight is concentrated in a smaller area, so it is hotter.
Phases of the Moon
Have you ever noticed that the moon looks different from night to night?

Sometimes it is big and round, and other times it is a tiny crescent.

The reason for this has to do with the positions of the Moon and the Sun and how they look from Earth.
Phases of the Moon
Sometimes the Earth and the Moon move into a straight line path with the Sun. When this happens, either the Moon or the Sun can become blocked from our view for a brief time. This event is called an

There are two types of eclipses:

Lunar Eclipse
: The Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon so we
can't see the Moon

Solar Eclipse
: The Moon moves between the Sun and the Earth so
we can't see the Sun
Effects of the Moon: Tides
Because they live next to the Atlantic Ocean, people in New Brunswick are very familiar with the daily rising and falling of the ocean, called

happen because of the closeness of the Moon and the Earth. All objects in space exert a pulling force on the other objects around them, which we call

The ocean tides are caused by the gravitational force of the Moon pulling on the Earth.
High Tide and Low Tide
The Moon's pull on the side of the Earth facing the Moon is much greater than the pull on the other side away from the Moon. This difference causes a distortion in the shape of the Earth's oceans. The water level in the oceans facing the Moon is higher than those facing away from the Moon.

As the Earth rotates on its axis, different oceans take turns facing the Moon. This is why we have high and low tides.
Space Part 3:
Check Your Understanding Questions
Go to: m.socrative.com

Room # 837786
Total Lunar Eclipse:
April 14, 2014
Click on the link below to check out a cool time-lapse video from Space.com of the total lunar eclipse that just happened on April 14, also known as a Blood Moon!
The Bay of Fundy
Here in the Bay of Fundy, we have the highest tides in the world. There are a few reasons why our tides are so high.

Click on the link below to explore this natural wonder of the world that is right in our backyard.

Full transcript