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Drill, Physical Training and Physical Education in State Sch

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Ed Lowe

on 23 March 2017

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Transcript of Drill, Physical Training and Physical Education in State Sch

Drill, Physical Training and Physical Education in State Schools
The Model Course (1902)
Imposed as a result of Britain's poor performance in the
(South Africa)
Produced and imposed by
of the War Office (not education department)
Syllabus of Physical Training (1933)
Watershed between syllabuses of the past and the Physical Education of the future
The syllabus had one section for the under elevens and one for the over elevens
A detailed, high quality and highly respected respected syllabus
Moving and Growing (1952) & Planning the Programme (1954)
Physical, social and cognitive development
of experiences.
Personal satisfaction / sense of achievement.
for all.
Elementary School Drill
The End of the Nineteenth Century
Candidates should be able to consider both the reasons for the change from one approach, the next and the effects of each change both then and now and identify differences between each of the following and what occurs in State Schools today.

The 1902 Model Course
• Describe objectives, content and methodology;
• Explain reasons for implementation; role of Colonel Malcolm Fox;
• Explain reasons for rapid replacement (need for healthy lifestyle for urban working class young people).

The 1933 Syllabus of Physical Training
• Describe objectives, content, methodology, reputation,
• Explain reasons for replacement.

The 1950s – Moving and Growing (1952) and Planning the Programme (1954)
• Describe objectives, content and methodology;
• Explain the influence of WW2 on the use of apparatus and the building of gymnasia leading to increased involvement in and effectiveness of physical activity for young people.

The 1970s and 80s (The National Curriculum)
• Explain the impact of industrial action on opportunity and provision for young people to participate in physical activity in state schools as part of a lifelong involvement in a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle impact on extra-curricular activities
• Describe the aims of the National Curriculum for Physical Education.
• Evaluate critically the impact on Physical Education in state schools.
The National Curriculum (1988)
Physical Education - Compulsory core subject to be taught from age 5 to 16 years.
Divided into 'Key Stages' for different ages developing knowledge, skills and understanding in a variety of practical areas.
Framework used by all state schools to ensure that teaching and learning is balanced and consistent.
Attainment measured by National Curriculum Levels called 'Attainment Targets'.
The Model Course
Syllabus of Physical Training
Moving and Growing (1952)
Planning the Programme (1954)
The National Curriculum for PE
(1970s & 80s)
20th Century Developments in State Schools
did the approach change?
was the main aim or purpose?
was doing the teaching & learning?
was it introduced?
did the activity take place?
was the system introduced?
was it being taught?
did we get from this:
to this:
then this:
then modern day PE & Sport!
What were the characteristics of Public School Sport at the end of the 19th Century?
How did that differ to state school physical activity at the same time?
Background Information
In 1866, the army rejected 38% of recruits on physical grounds.
Pre-1870 the education of the poor was responsibility of the parish and therefore inconsistent.
(state schools) established after the
Compulsory education for children aged between 5 and 10 years.
1899 - School leaving age raised to 12.
Restricted space for play and physical exercise.
Many schools in industrial towns had no playing facilities.
Fitness for army recruits
Discipline & obedience
Social control
To do for working class children what games was doing for public school boys
1870 - Military drill. War Office exercises. Regimented / static. 'Dummy' weapons. Mixed ages. Passive.
1890s - Swedish drill
1900 - Board of Education stated that games were a suitable alternative to swedish drill
Authoritarian / Command Response
Taught by qualified class teachers in 1890s
No education content. Adult orientated exercises.
System of freestanding exercise created by Ling Association.
Exercised the body systematically called 'callisthenics'
Swedish Gymnastics
German Gymnastics
Taught by Charles Beck (1798-1866) in the USA.
Emphasised the use of apparatus for vaulting and strengthening
Influenced by military and public school gymnastics
"It is important therefore that the short time claimed for physical training should be devoted wholly to useful exercises. No part of that time should be wasted on what is merely spectacular or entertaining, but every exercise should have its peculiar purpose and value in a complete system framed to develop all parts of the body"
Model course of physical training 1902
Compare the aims and outcomes of
Public School sport
and physical training in
Board Schools
in the 1870s...

Discuss the
effects of these two approaches...

How does this provision compare to modern
day society?

(of the Working Class for military service/war)
Training in handling
for the working class - obedience
Preparation for their lives in employment and the armed forces.
Military drill

/ marching / stood in military-style rows
Static exercises, e.g. arm raises, in unison,
Weapon training
Deep breathing

and required no apparatus
Taught by Non-Commissioned Officers (
(e.g. 'Attention', 'Stand at ease', 'About turn', etc)
Group responses / no individuality
In ranks and in large numbers
The 1902 Model Course only lasted two years before being replaced.

Why do you think this was the case?
The demise of the the 1902 Model Course:
Because it was imposed the
War Office
rather than the
Education Department
Cruel, not child-centered and viewed as having
no educational values
Military Drill, with its command style, was soon considered
unsuitable for young children
Educationalists demanded a healthier approach linked to
good posture and therapeutic exercises
with children being allowed to
rather than being treated like little soldiers
Teachers objected to NCOs
in schools and wanted PHYSICAL TRAINING to be their responsibility
- Chief Medical Officer within the Board of Education. Interested in the health-giving/therapeutic effects of exercise.

Part 1:
4 Marks - Identify four reasons why the 1902 Model Course was replaced?

identified the need to differentiate between ages for physical training.

Influence of
Dr George Newman

Industrial Depression & rise in working class unemployment.

Good physique
Good posture
Development of mind and body (

Athletics, gymnastics and games skills
Group work
Set out in a series of 'tables' from which teachers planned their lessons
Still direct style for the majority of the lesson/centralised
parts of the lesson
Group work
/ task throughout
Encouragement of
special clothing/kit
Five 20-minute lessons a week recommended
Used many schools'
newly built gymnasia but mostly in playgrounds
Outdoor lessons recommended for health benefits
specialist PE teachers
'The ultimate test of which every system of physical training should be judged [is] to be found in the posture and general carriage of the children"
1933 Syllabus of Physical Training
Dr Newman stated that good nourishment, effective medical inspection and treatment and hygienic surroundings were all necessary for good health as well as 'a comprehensive system of physical training... for normal healthy development of the body [and] for the correction of inherent or acquired defects.
Why was the 1933 Syllabus of Physical Training replaced?
Although the syllabus had (and still has) a great reputation it was replaced in the early 1950s
Times and thinking were changing and a more
holistic approach
to the physical education of young children was sought
There was a desire to use
fewer prescriptive 'tables'
of exercises for teachers to go through and
more creativity
By the 1950s there were more
female teachers
who wanted a different
movement style approach
to physical activity
Post-war there were many new
purpose-built gymnasia
for gymnastics activity.
List five key words or phrases that describe....
1. The 1902 Model Course

2. The 1933 Syllabus of Physical Training
Background Information....
Post World War II
Need for 'thinking' soldiers, and the subsequent perceived need for 'thinking' children.
Destruction of schools led to extensive post-war rebuilding lead to an expansion of facilities

Aimed to ensure equality of educational opportunity.
Required local authorities to provide playing fields for all schools.
School leaving age raised to 15 in 1947.
Experiment with
(problem-solving) for children with disabilities
Switch from Physical Training to
Physical Education
Agility exercises (obstacle training from the army) gymnastics & dance (movement), swimming and games skills.
Theme or sequence work.
Movement to
Circuit training, weight training and outward bound activities
Greater number of
female PE teachers
influenced more dance / movement style activities
Less prescriptive activities ('tables') encouraged more innovative teaching.
Exploratory, creative, individual and fun.
and enjoyment orientated.
(or guided) approach to learning.
More specialisted PE teachers
Teacher guidance
rather than direction.
Problem solving
/ creative / exploratory / discovery
Individual interpretation of tasks / decentralisation
Using full
(cave, ropes, bars, boxes, mats, etc)
Led to an overall expansion of physical activities in schools
Publications issued by the Ministry of Education
Developed due to changes in educational thinking which led to more child-centred approach
Syllabus of Physical Training (1933)
Moving and Growing (1952)
Planning the Programme (1954)
direct style
for the majority of the lesson/
Some decentralised
parts of the lesson
Group work
/ task throughout
Encouragement of
special clothing/kit
Five 20-minute lessons a week recommended
Used many schools' newly built gymnasia but
mostly in playgrounds
Outdoor lessons recommended for health benefits
Some specialist PE teachers
Comparison of Methodology
More specialisted PE teachers
rather than direction.
Problem solving
/ creative / exploratory / discovery
Individual interpretation of tasks /

Using full
(cave, ropes, bars, boxes, mats, etc)
Weekly lessons
Military Drill
Physical Training
Physical Education
Strict and repetitive training in procedures of movements, as for ceremonial parades or the use of weapons
Training of the physical body as distinguished from the mind and spirit
The instilling of skills, knowledge and values through the medium of physical activity
The Decentralised Years (1944 to 1988)
PE teachers were fully trained

Decentralised system meant there was more freedom for teachers to display initiative and flair to cater for local needs and interests

However, could be viewed as negative due to teachers not being fully accountable, choosing own activities and not providing balance of activities

Extra-curricular activities dependent upon school and the teachers.

1980s - Industrial action / strikes over contractual hours and lack of incentives led to reduction of 'good will' in teachers.
Impact of Industrial Action by Teachers in State Schools...
Reduced opportunity and provision.
Extra-Curricular activities severely restricted or stopped.
Participation reduced in schools.
Participation shifted to community clubs.
Frustration / disappointment from both children and teachers.
Negative press for teachers.
National Curriculum 1988
National government wanted to take more control of education, setting new national standards of attainment, implementing a greater range of activities and making schools & teachers accountable (Ofsted inspections) - Education Reform Acts 1986 and 1988.
Centralised vs Decentralised
Elementary School Drill
1902 Model Course
1933 Syllabus of Physical Training
1950s - Moving and Growing & Planning the Programme
1988 onwards - National Curriculum
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of a centralised and a decentralised system...
Develop a range of
psycho-motor skills
Maintain and increase physical mobility and flexibility, stamina and strength
Develop understanding and appreciation for a
of physical activities
positive values and attitudes
like sportsmanship, competition and abiding by the rules
Help children acquire
self-esteem and confidence
through the acquisition of skills, knowledge and values
Develop an understanding of the importance of exercise in maintaining a
healthy lifestyle
The Impact of the National Curriculum...
Highlight the Key Aims and Outcomes of the National Curriculum for PE..
Advantages of a centralised system:
provides uniformity of experience
coordinated system
funded by the government

Disadvantages of a centralised system:
can be rigid and inflexible
may not cater for different local needs

As for a decentralised system:
can be difficult to monitor the system effectively
allows for the initiatives of individuals such as teachers
Strong emphasis placed on authority and discipline
Removed the teaching of Games and Gymnastics
Revision Videos
1902 Model Course
1933 Syllabus of PT
1950's Syllabus
1970s & 1980s
National Curriculum
Part 2:
1 Mark - Can you think what would have changed in terms of an objective by 1933?
Syllabuses of Physical Training
The Model Course was replaced by the Syllabuses of Physical Training (PT) in 1904, 1909, 1919 and 1933.
Each syllabus sought to stress the
physical and educative effects of sporting activities
NCOs were no longer used and basic
class teachers lacked experience and training
Government produced a
highly prescriptive centralised syllabus
that teachers could follow easily.
Facilities were still limited and obedience was still important.
Style of teaching was still similar to drill but without military content.
What does this quote imply about the nature and priorities associated with the 1902 Model Course?
20 Mark Question
Moving & Growing & Planning the Programme
Produced by the Education Department as a guideline for
Primary Schools
Teachers were
not specifically trained
in Physical Education so needed guidance when planning and delivering PE.
Movement approach as advocated by RUDOLF LABAN (movement to music, dance and creativity) complimented by exploratory work, problem solving, creativity and skill-based work.
National Curriculum for PE
Physical Education can be taught through a range of physical activities:
Athletic Activities;
Outdoor and Adventurous Activities;
Exercise Activities.
A broad and a balanced curriculum is encouraged - mixture of team and individual sports as well as competitive and non-competitive
Extra-curricular Sport

Can be either recreational or competitive based
Provision differs between different schools. Can be based on availability, facilities, time pressure, availability of staff, etc.
Factors that have affected the drop in competitive school sport in the 1980s:
Teacher strikes (based on contractual hours) reduced 'good will'.
Financial pressures on schools' of running fixtures.
The competing leisure and employment opportunities for teenagers
What factors influence PE/Sport Provision in Modern State Schools?
Timetable Restrictions
Lack of Funding / Resources
Quality of Staffing
Quality of Facilities
School - Club Links
June 2013
June 2013
Jan 2011
June 2011
Jan 2012
Full transcript