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Timeline of the Irish History
Transcript of Timeline of the Irish History
Bronze Age & Iron Age
Timeline of the Irish History
Bronze Age technologies start to arrive in Ireland, including the moulding of Ballybeg type flat axes, and the beginnings of copper mining at Mount Gabriel in Co. Cork, and Ross Island in Co. Kerry
During the Iron Age in Ireland, Celtic influence in art, language and culture begins to take hold.
How do we know so much about the Celts?
They left no written account of how they lived but we seem to know a lot about them. This is because Celts usually traded with the Greeks and Romans . It is from scholars of these civilisations that we know so much about the Celts.
La Tène influence from continental Europe influences carvings on the Turoe stone, Bullaun, Co. Galway.
Additional works expand the site at Emain Macha (first occupied in the neolithic period)
Construction of a series of defensive ditches between the provinces of Ulster and Connacht.
7 June 2001
The twenty-first, twenty-third and twenty-sixth Amendments to the Constitution of Ireland, which provided for a universal ban on the death penalty, Ireland's recognition of the International Criminal Court and its ratification of the Treaty of Nice, respectively, were all approved by referendum.
6 May 2008
After leading a Fianna Fáil government for nearly 11 years, the Taoiseach Bertie Ahern retires - while under pressure due to corruption allegations.
2 October 2009
The ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon is enabled through the passing of a second referendum on the subject.
1 February 2011
An ongoing financial crisis places significant strain on the coalition government, and the 30th Dáil is dissolved.
23 July 1803
Second United Irishmen rebellion: The Irish nationalist Robert Emmet attempted to seize Dublin Castle.
24 March 1829
Catholic Emancipation: The Catholic Relief Act 1829 was passed, which allowed Catholics to sit in Parliament.
3 May 1831
Tithe War: A force of one hundred and twenty armed police forcibly took possession of cattle belonging to a Roman Catholic priest in lieu of his compulsory tithe to the Anglican Church of Ireland.
17 December 1834
Dublin and Kingstown Railway is opened as the first commercial railway in Ireland.
Tithe War: The passage of the Tithe Commutation Act 1836 reduced the amount of the tithe and changed the manner of payment, which largely ended the unrest
Great Irish Famine: A potato blight destroyed two-thirds of Ireland's staple crop and lead to an estimated 1 million deaths and emigration of a further 1 million people.
1 January 1801
Acts of Union 1800 passed. The Kingdom of Ireland is annexed to Great Britain. 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.
Battle of Carrickfergus: A French invasion. A force of 600 French troops landed under the command of the Privateer François Thurot overwhelmed the small garrison of the town and captured its castle
After agitation by the Irish Volunteers, the Parliament of Great Britain passed a number of reforms - including the repeal of Poynings' Law - collectively referred to as the Constitution of 1782.
Expédition d'Irlande: Attempted French invasion.It
was an unsuccessful attempt by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars to assist the outlawed Society of United Irishmen, a popular rebel Irish republican group, in their planned rebellion against British rule.
24 May 1798
Battle of Ballymore-Eustace: A miscarried surprise attack on the British garrison at Ballymore in County Kildare was counterattacked and defeated.
Extreme winters in successive years result in poor harvests, causing a largescale famine in which between 310,000 and 480,000 die.
14 September 1607
22 October 1641
The Annals of the Four Masters records that the King Of England sent an exotic animal (possibly a giraffe) to Ireland.
An earthquake takes place at Sliabh Gamh in County Mayo
1 December Edward Poyning, Henry VII of England's Lord Deputy to Ireland, issued a declaration known as Poynings' Law under which the Irish parliament was to pass no law without the prior consent of the English parliament.
The Annals of the Four Masters refers to a famine which "prevailed through all Ireland".
12 November 1216
Great Charter of Ireland issued by Henry III of England.
The Annals of the Four Masters records a Summer-time heat-wave and drought
The first representative Irish Parliament (of the Lordship of Ireland) meets in Dublin.
Eblana is the name of an ancient Irish settlement which appears in the Geographia of Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy), the Greek astronomer around the year 140 AD. It was traditionally believed by scholars to refer to the same site as the modern city of Dublin
Ptolemy's Geographia provides the earliest known written reference to habitation in the Dublin area, referring to a settlement in the area as Eblana Civitas
Cormac mac Airt was the longstanding High King of Ireland. (The Annals date his reign as 226-266, but scholars vary in their assessment of Mac Airt's reign as legend or historical fact)
Pollen data records from the late Iron Age indicate a resurgence in human activity after a relatively stagnant period.
26 May 1315
Edward Bruce arrives in Ireland and rallies many Irish lords against Anglo-Norman control.
The Statutes of Kilkenny are passed at Kilkenny to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland.
Palladius is sent as the first bishop "to the Irish believing in Christ" by Pope Celestine I.
Niall Noígíallach is placed by Medieval texts as a legendary Goidelic High King of Ireland
According to the Annals of Ulster (and other chronicles) Saint Patrick returns to Ireland.
A seemingly global climate event (possibly a volcanic winter) causes crop failures and famine in Ireland.
Irish monastic influence during the Golden Age peaks with the foundation of monastic schools by Columba and Brendan at Iona and Clonfert.(Columbanus would later set up similar institutions in continental Europe, Fursa in East Anglia and Gaul, Aidan at Lindisfarne. Etc.)
Several sources record a pervasive "yellow plague" on the island
Óengus of Tallaght writes the Martyrology of Tallaght, the Prologue of which speaks of the last vestiges of paganism in Ireland
Vikings Ivar Beinlaus and Olaf the White land in Dublin Bay and establish a fortress - close to where the city of Dublin now stands
The King of Dublin Olaf Cuaran abdicates following defeat at the Battle of Tara to Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill.
Máel Sechnaill demands (and is paid) "tribute" by the Vikings at Dublin (this tribute date is sometimes recognised as the "foundation date" of Dublin as a city)
23 April 1014
Defeat of Máel Mórda mac Murchada and Viking forces by the armies of Brian Boru marks the beginning of the decline of Viking power in Ireland.
Henry II of England lands at Waterford and declares himself Lord of Ireland.
Following exile by Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, Dermot MacMurrough seeks support from Henry II of England to reclaim his Kingship.
The Treaty of Windsor consolidates Norman influence in Ireland.
Ireland was covered in ice sheets during the last glacial maximum
A narrow channel forms between Ireland and southwest Scotland
Agriculture (including the keeping of livestock, and crop farming) has its beginnings in Ireland, at sites such as the Céide Fields in Mayo
Mesolithic hunter-gatherers occupy sites such as that at Mount Sandel in Northern Ireland
Mesolithic hunter-gatherers migrate to Ireland
The Neolithic peoples of the Boyne Valley build a complex of chamber tombs, standing stones and enclosures over a period of hundreds of years. (Newgrange itself is dated to 3300-2900 BC).
Tribes of Ireland according to Ptolemy's Geographia
First Viking raids on Iona, Rathlin Island, Inishmurray and Inishbofin.
Olaf the White
6 October 1175
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair
The Annals of the Four Masters are chronicles of medieval Irish history.
The Irish parliament passed the Crown of Ireland Act, which established a Kingdom of Ireland to be ruled by Henry VIII and his successors.
25 February 1570
Pope Pius V issued a papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis, declaring Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releasing her subjects from any allegiance to her.
The Annals of the Four Masters record a drought, in which no rain fell "from Bealtaine to Lammas", which resulted in disease and plague.
The Annals of the Four Masters record that the Great Comet of 1577 "was wondered at by all universally".
16 July 1579
Second Desmond Rebellion: James FitzMaurice FitzGerald, a cousin of the 15th Earl of Desmond, landed a small force of rebels at Dingle.
The Nine Years' War commences in Ulster, as Hugh O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell rebel against Elizabeth I's authority in Ulster.
3 February 1537
FitzGerald was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.
11 June 1534
Thomas FitzGerald, the 10th Earl of Kildare, publicly renounced his allegiance to Henry VIII of England.
The Flight of the Earls: The departure from Ireland of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell.
Plantation of Ulster by Scottish Presbyterians began on a large scale.
Irish Rebellion of 1641: Phelim O'Neill led the capture of several forts in the north of Ireland.
Irish Confederate Wars: The Irish Catholic Confederation was established, under the nominal overlordship of Charles I of England, with its capital at Kilkenny.
A more favorable agreement was reached with Charles's representative, which promised toleration of Catholicism, a repeal of Poynings' Law, and recognition of lands taken by Irish Catholics during the war.
The Supreme Council of the Irish Catholic Confederation signed an agreement with a representative of Charles I, which procured some rights for Catholics in return for their military support of the royalists in England.
22 August 1798
Irish Rebellion of 1798: One thousand French soldiers landed at Kilcummin in support of the rebellion.
27 August 1798
Battle of Castlebar: A combined French-Irish force defeated a vastly numerically superior British force at Castlebar.
27 August 1798
Irish Rebellion of 1798: The Republic of Connacht was proclaimed at Castlebar. First United Irishmen rebellion
Fenian Rising was a rebellion against British rule in Ireland, organised by the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB).
19 August 1913
A Dublin businessman, William Martin Murphy, fired forty workers he suspected of belonging to the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU).
26 August 1913
18 January 1914
Dublin Lockout: The Trades Union Congress (TUC) rejected a call by the ITGWU to go on strike in their support. The strikers quit the union and returned to work.
Government of Ireland Act, offering Irish Home Rule, passed but application simultaneously postponed for the duration of World War I
18 September 1914
24 April 1916
29 April 1916
Easter Rising: The leader of the uprising ordered his followers to surrender.
18 April 1918
Acting on a resolution of Dublin Corporation, the Lord Mayor convenes a conference at the Mansion House to devise plans to resist conscription.
14 December 1918
21 January 1919
The First Dáil of the Irish Republic meets and issues a Declaration of Independence from the UK.
Irish War of Independence: Volunteers of the Army of the Irish Republic kill two members of the Royal Irish Constabulary in what is considered to be the first act of the War of Independence.
21 January 1919
3 May 1921
6 December 1921
Irish War of Independence: The War of Independence ends when negotiations between the British government and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic conclude with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the creation of the Irish Free State
28 June 1922
24 May 1923
Irish Civil War: IRA Chief of Staff Frank Aiken orders volunteers to dump arms - effectively ending the Civil War.
The Constitution of Ireland comes into force replacing the Irish Free State with a new state called "'Éire', or, in the English language, 'Ireland'"
29 December 1937
14 December 1955
Ireland joins the United Nations along with 16 other sovereign states.
The Parliament of Northern Ireland is prorogued (and abolished the following year).
Ireland joins the European Community along with Britain and Denmark.
1 January 1973
Dublin Lockout: The ITGWU went on strike.
Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led an action which seized key government buildings in Dublin, and issued the Proclamation of the Irish Republic.
A general election returns a majority for Sinn Féin.
Northern Ireland is established.
Irish Civil War: Bombardment by Michael Collins of Anti-Treaty forces occupying the Four Courts marks the start of the Irish Civil War
The Republic of Ireland Act is signed by the President of Ireland abolishing the remaining roles of the British monarch in the government of the Irish state.
Troops are deployed on the streets of Northern Ireland, marking the start of the Troubles.
The Northern Ireland Assembly is elected.
1 January 1974
15 November 1985
The governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom sign the Anglo-Irish Agreement.
Mary Robinson becomes the first female President of Ireland.
3 December 1990
The Belfast Agreement is signed. As a result, the Northern Ireland Assembly is elected, to which powers are devolved in 1999 and a power-sharing Executive takes office.
A power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive takes office, but resigns in May as a result of the Ulster Workers' Council strike. The Assembly is suspended and later abolished.
Ireland enters the Celtic Tiger period which marks great economic growth for Ireland - which continues until 2007.
Ireland yields its official currency the Irish pound and adopts the Euro.
28 March 1646
5 March 1867
Thomas FitzGerald , 10th Earl of Kildare
The members of the Supreme Council were arrested. The General Assembly renounced the agreement with England.