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Metabolism

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by

Angie Dobberfuhl

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of Metabolism

Glucose Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Breakdown of sugar
Occurs in cytoplasm of cells
Creates 2ATP Total (-2ATP+4ATP)
Creates 2 pyruvate Glycolysis ATP Starch or Glycogen Sucrose, lactose (etc.) Lactic Acid Fermentation Ethanol pyruvate pyruvate as pyruvate goes through the mitochondrial membrane it is oxydized Oxydation of Pyruvate aka Kreb's Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Makes the MOST ATP Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis Protein Protein complex Protein Protein complex O Electron Transport Chain Solar Energy CO2 H2O Sugars H2O CO2 O2 O2 NO O2 With O2 2 ATP 2 CO2 2 NADH 2 FADH2 4 CO2 2 ATP 6 NADH 34 ATP H2O 2 ATP Ethanol or Lactic Acid http://www.johnkyrk.com/ Lipids or proteins Without it you are TOAST! THIS is why you die without oxygen ADP ATP P ATP
Synthase http://faculty.washington.edu/crowther/Misc/Songs/music.shtml glucose 10 steps 2 pyruvate C C C 2 ATP 4 ATP 2 NADH O2 protons electrons FADH2 NADH Does glycolysis require Oxygen?
Are there any Carbons lost in glycolysis?
How many energy molecules are produced in glycolysis (Gross)? How many does it take to run glycolysis (Net)?
What is the starting point of glycolysis? The end point?
How would submariners ultimately die if they were trapped and the air scrubbers that add oxygen to the air were defective?
If you did not have glucose in your diet, could you make ATP? Why or why not?
What happens in the muscles of free divers that allows them to dive so deep without oxygen? Does this
happen to you? When?
Would letting oxygen into your vat of fermenting wine spoil the wine? Why?
Why do most organisms use aerobic respiration rather than anaerobic respiration?
Flouride can disrupt the electron transport chain what would happen to you if you had flouride poisoning? Why?
Where does glycolysis take place?
Does Citric Acid Cycle require Oxygen?
How many energy molecules are produced in Citric Acid Cycle?
Where does the Citric Acid Cycle take place?
Does Oxidative Phosporylation require Oxygen?
Where does the Oxidative Phosporylation take place? CO2 CO2 NADH NADH CoA CoA CoA CoA CoA CoA 2 CO2 3 NADH FADH2 ATP Citrate ketoglutarate Succinate Oxaloacetate Oxydative Phosphorylation Poisons can block the ETC http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/603pyruvic.html Chloroplast Photosystems Light Reactions Thylakoid membrane Stroma Thylakoid Grana Thylakoid Membrane Ribosome DNA where Chlorophyll is embedded Starch http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chloroplast.svg Outer Membrane Inner Membrane Any Green part of a plant has.... Light and photosynthesis absorbs purple and red reflects green Chlorophyll Dark Reactions PS II wavelength 680 e- H2O 2H+ 1/2 O2 e- e- PS I wavelength 700 Calvin Cycle e- e- e- H+ NADPH NADP+ Dark Reactions G3P 3PG RuBP 3CO2 6ATP 6ADP + 6P NADPH NADP+ 3 ATP 3ADP + 3P calvin
cycle Glucose, Starch, Cellulose, etc. If it is too
Hot or Dry Photosynthesis becomes
difficult O2 wants to bind to RuBP (Calvin Cycle) CAM and C4 pathways are the solution for some plants So there is no C to make G3P or sugars Where does photosynthesis take place?

How does a plant let in CO2?

Is glucose the ultimate product of photosynthesis?

Are there any reactions in photosynthesis that do NOT require light energy?

Is chlorophyll the only pigment present in plants?

Why could it be advantageous to have more than one pigment for photosynthesis?

What type of photosynthetic pigment is responsible for donating electrons in Photosystem I and II?

What molecule is responsible for replacing lost electrons in chlorophyll?

What is the ultimate product of photosynthesis? What can it be used for?

When is CO2 used? Why is this important? Can you use CO2 in a similar way?

What molecule is recycled in the Calvin cycle that allows the cycle to repeat?

What molecule does RuBiSCO have a higher affinity for CO2 or O2? Does the affinity for O2 cause problems for the plant?

How have plants evolved to stop the problem?

Where does most of our O2 come from?

How is it possible for you to create glycogen if you cannot incorporate Carbon from inorganic molecule into your body?

Where does excess carbon come from in our environment? Does this cause problems? Are these problems exacerbated by loss of forests and wilderness? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaf stoma (pl. stomata) plant 'noses' for gas exchange Solar energy H2O ATP NADPH CO2 G3P O2 During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide and sunlight to create fuel—glucose and other sugars—for building plant structures. This process forms the foundation of the fast (biological) carbon cycle. (Illustration adapted from P.J. Sellers et al., 1992.) This diagram of the fast carbon cycle shows the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, and red are human contributions in gigatons of carbon per year. White numbers indicate stored carbon. (Diagram adapted from U.S. DOE, Biological and Environmental Research Information System.) http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page1.php ATP
Synthase H+ H+ H+ ADP ATP P H+ H+ H+ H+ electron transport chain electron transport chain http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/etc/movie-flash.htm for more animations
of cellular respiration http://www.johnkyrk.com/ for more animations
of photosynthesis http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/photosynthesis/movie-flash.htm http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/atpgradient/movie-flash.htm Electron Transport Chain ATP Synthase Light Reactions Photosystem II http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/photosystemII/movie-flash.htm Energy Molecules
NADH
FADH2
ATP Energy Molecules
NADPH
ATP http://www.umdf.org/site/c.8qKOJ0MvF7LUG/b.7934629/k.4C9B/Types_of_Mitochondrial_Disease.htm mitochondrial disease
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