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Describe the application and limits of procedural, object or

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on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Describe the application and limits of procedural, object or

Unit 6: - Software Design and Development (P1-P2)
What is a computer program?
A computer program is a way to make your computer to work, by giving the computer instructions. Everything is done by a computer and it is done by using computer programming.

A computer program is written by a programmer. It is very difficult for the programmer to write ones and zeros which what the computer reads, so computer programmers write it in programming language. Once that is finished, the programmer uses a compiler to convert it to the language that only the computer can understand.
What is a programming language?
Computer language is designed for programmers, so they can communicate with machines. Programming languages create programs that controls the behavior of an computer, you can also create scripts and applications with programming language.

There is literally hundreds of computing languages, the most common ones are Java, PHP, C++, HTML and many more.
Computer language can be split into two groups: high level languages & low-level languages. High-level languages are much easier to understand and more abstract, whereas Low-level languages are harder to understand and it's understandable by computers and not the programmer.

Task 1: Describe the application and limits of procedural, object oriented and event driven programming paradigms. [P1]
Task 2: Describe the application and limits of procedural, object oriented and event driven programming paradigms. [P1]
Task 3: Describe the factors influencing the choice of programming language. [P2]
The differences between procedural programming, object oriented programming and event driven programming.
Procedural programming:

A procedural programming is a programming that works like a step by step guide. In order to make it work you have to create a sequence of instructions of steps, therefore this can tell the computer what to do first and then the second. procedural programming language are C++, C, FORTRAN, pascal, and BASIC.

Application: It can help the user to solve the calculations for scientific and engineering usage.

Limitation: It is very difficult to changed the details once its been modified due to its layout. Therefore you have to go through the whole entire program in order to find the problem.
Factors influencing the choice of programming language
There are different factors in programming language such as organisational policy, suitability in terms of features and tools, availability of trained staff, reliability, development and maintenance costs and expandability.
Organisational policy:
Companies such as Microsoft or Apple have an organisational policy as to what programs they are going to use. For example Apple industries have a policy to use only Apple software.

Suitability in terms of features and tools:
Some programming languages are only designed for certain applications and software. They tend to have unique features and tools which will support those type of applications.

Availability of trained staff:
For large companies such as Apple or Microsoft, they tend to hire programmers that has lots of information about programming language. For those who knows more than one programming language, they are very successful in a computer environment, simply because they don't need to be trained, they can just start the work straight away. They know more information and tend to have more knowledge as well, therefore they are more reliable, and it can also reduce the risk of mistakes.
A reliability programming language is a programming language that is more reliable and it is less likely to crash. One example is Apple OS X, the primary programming language for Apple OS X is called Objective-C. Objective-C provides object orientated capabilities and a dynamic runtime, it gives the owner a dynamic typing and binding.

Development and maintenance costs:
Development and maintenance costs is very high, therefore companies such as Apple and Microsoft, they won't make mistakes at all, it has to be 100 percent perfect, otherwise their profit will decrease. Over all large companies will hire programmers that has a lot of knowledge, simply because they are more reliable.

For a programming company or an game company, they tend to have a large number of programmers that works for them. The main reason for such a large number of programmers to write the program, is to increase the speed of finishing the program or game.
Object oriented programming:

An object orientated program (OOP) is a programing language model organized around objects rather than actions and data rather than logic. Object is best described as a specific class in programming and it mainly has two areas, state and behavior.
Orientated programming also a type of programming not only it describes the data base of a data structure but also a type of operations. Most of the languages are developed using OOP concept. OOP is a programming concept that uses objects to develop a system C++ and java are examples of OOP.

Application: It is easier to change the codes and to modify it.
The object oriented programming encourages the programmer to place code in classes so it is less directly accessible by computer system. Instead, the data is accessed by calling specially written functions, which are methods. the methods acts as special rules in order to change the code.

Limitation: Object oriented programs are bigger in file size because they have many lines of code for standard applications. This means they are likely to run slower because they require a large amount of memory to run.
Event driven programming:

An event driven programming is a way to allow the programs respond to many different inputs or events. This is a programming paradigm in which the flow of the program is determined by events the movement. The signals can be from any source, and the most common are timers, input devices and sensors.

Application: Even driven programming are interactive programs. This is very important for user based programs, because most of the modern GUI (Graphical user interface) programs use event driven programming, for example desktop publications and photo editing software.

Limitation: Event driven programs often require a large amount of processing power due to the need of continuously active event loops. Therefore, more processing power will be required for the computer.
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