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G4 Presentation

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by

Cayla Wong

on 27 April 2016

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Transcript of G4 Presentation

Stores energy from solar panels
For the whole house
Lithium Battery
Recyclable
Rechargable
Case 2: Electric Cars
Hybrid and Electric cars
Carbon emissions (tonnes of CO2 emitted per gigawatt hour of electricity produced)
Hydroelectric, nuclear, renewable energy sources: close to 0
Natural gas power plants: 500 to 600
Coal-fired power plants: 1000
Chemistry
Case 1: Powerwall
Physics
Standard Cell Potential
Voltage of battery
Tendency to reduce or oxidize
Gibbs Free Energy
Allows work to be done
Battery Systems Engineering
Conclusion
Are batteries environmentally and ethically appropriate for energy storage?

Biology
References
Are batteries environmentally and ethically appropriate for energy storage?
Cayla Wong, Dorothy Yuan, Ryan Song and Richard Jiang
History of Batteries
Physics
Chemistry
Biology
Case Studies: Powerwall and Cars
Standard Cell Potential
Gibbs Free Energy
Battery Systems Engineering
Periodicity
Redox Reactions
Alternative Chemcial Reactions
Human Health Effects
Environmental Concerns
Alessandro Volta (1745-1827)
Invention of battery
Voltaic Pile

Modern Battery
Lithium ion battery
Lead acid battery
Why are batteries so appealing?
Global Warming Effects and CO2(g)

Not 100% safe:
(1) Extraction of raw materials
(2) Production of battery
(3) Improper disposal
Batteries are environmentally and ethically appropriate for energy storage and can be developed even further in the future.
Standard Electrode Potential
-Relative to hydrogen
-Atmospheric pressure
-25 degrees celcius
-Tells us the tendency of a substance to oxidize
Standard Cell Potential
-Standard cell potential between zinc and copper
Gibbs Free Energy
-Tells us how to determine the voltage of a cell
Battery Systems Engineering
-The available energy in system that allows for work to be done
-To calculate the Gibbs free energy in the redox reaction
-Let us take the case of copper and zinc
-parallel vs series circuits
Redox Reaction
Examples
-encompasses oxidation (anode) and reduction (cathode)

-oxidation reaction creates electrons

-reduction reaction absorbs electrons

-battery continues to create electricity the anode and/or the cathode are depleted

-oxidation state is the charge except in a covalent bond

-oxidation increases oxidation state value while reduction reduces oxidation state value
Recharging Batteries
Lithium Battery
Proper Disposal
Cadmium
Nickel
Lead
Mercury
Trophic Levels
Conclusion: Environmentally appropriate with improvements
Conclusion: Environmentally Appropriate
Are batteries bad for the environment? (2010). Retrieved January 17, 2016, from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/39214032/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/are-batteries-bad-environment/#.VqQrC8ArKCQ

Average household electricity use around the world. (2013). Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/average-household-electricity-consumption

Battery and Energy Technologies. (2015). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.mpoweruk.com/chemistries.htm

Battery Education. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.batteryeducation.com/2006/04/amps_and_volts_.html

Battery History. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://www.energizer.ca/about-batteries/battery-history

Biomagnification. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2016, from http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/edu/learning/player/lesson13/l13la1.html

BU-101: When was the Battery Invented? (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/when_was_the_battery_invented

BU-302: Serial and Parallel Battery Configurations. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/serial_and_parallel_battery_configurations


Average Family Size:
2.5
Electricity Consumption:
11 879 kWh/year
32.5 kWh/day

Electricity Consumption:
4 741 kWh/year
13.0 kWh/day
Per Individual
Per Household
Flat Screen TV 0.1 kWh /hr

Lights Per Room 0.1 kWh /hr

Laptop 0.05 kWh /hr

Refrigerator 1.6 kWh /day

Clothes Washer 2.3 kWh each use

Clothes Dryer 3.3 kWh each use
Average Household Electricity Usage

Powerwall Storage:
7 kWh
Average Power Consumption per person:
13.0 kWh/day
Average Power Consumption per household:
35.5 kWh/day

Trophic Levels and Biomagnification
Sample Redox
Lead Acid
Alkaline

Average Electricity Usage and Storage
Quaternary Consumer

Tertiary Consumer

Secondary Consumer

Secondary Consumer

Producer
References
BU-307: How does Electrolyte Work? (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/bu_307_electrolyte

Chemistry of Batteries. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/battery.html

Clark, J. (2013). Oxidation states (oxidation numbers). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/redox/oxidnstates.html

Environmental Effects Associated with Battery Disposal. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://www.frost.com/sublib/display-market-insight-top.do?id=20759887

History of the Battery. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://inventors.about.com/od/bstartinventions/a/History-Of-The-Battery.htm

How Batteries Work. (2000). Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/everyday-tech/battery3.htm

How do batteries affect the environment? (n.d.). Retrieved December 21, 2016, from http://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/06/how-do-batteries-affect-the-environment

Lead acid battery. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.chemistryhelp.net/basic-chemistry/lead-acid-battery
References
Lead-Acid Battery : Principles of Operation. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from https://www.av8n.com/physics/lead-acid.htm

Lithium-ion Batteries. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.physicscentral.com/explore/action/lithium.cfm

MIT School of Engineering. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://engineering.mit.edu/ask/how-does-battery-work

N. (n.d.). Standard Electrode Potentials. Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/electrode.html

Nuñez, M. (2005). Electrochemical studies of batteries. New York: Nova Science.

Power System. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/power/2-how-do-batteries-work.html

Powerwall. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2016, from https://www.teslamotors.com/en_CA/POWERWALL

Raw Materials Company Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2016, from http://www.rawmaterials.com/page/technology/

Redox Reactions. (2005). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~coursedev/Online tutorials/Redox.htm

Redox Reactions. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/redox

Transition Metals (38). (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://theodoregray.com/periodictable/Elements/TransitionMetals/index.s7.html

Wang, C. (2012). Battery Systems Engineering. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Wang, S. S. (2011, December 2011). Retrieved from http://sites.ieee.org/clas-sysc/files/2012/05/Wang-Battery-and-EV.pdf

Wang, C. (2012). Battery Systems Engineering. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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