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Why is Sigmund Freud Considered the Father of Modern Psychology
Transcript of Why is Sigmund Freud Considered the Father of Modern Psychology
Freud Theories 2
to re-establish a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind by excavating and resolving unconscious repressed conflicts.
Done by method of free-association
Freud Theories 1
Why is Sigmund Freud Considered the Father of Modern Psychology?
A few people might suggest that Freud is the father of psychology, since he is perhaps one of its most "known" figures. Others might suggest that Aristotle is the true father of psychology, since he is responsible for the theoretical and philosophical framework that contributed to psychology's earliest beginnings. Still others might argue that those earliest researchers such as Helmholtz and Fechner deserve credit as the founders of psychology.
Timeline of Sigmund Freud
1856: Freud born on May 6 in Freiberg, Moravia.
1859: Freud Family move from Freiberg to Leipzig
1860: Family settles in Vienna
1881: Freud graduates as doctor of medicine
1882: Freud becomes engaged to
1882-5: Freud works in Vienna General Hospital
1886: Freud sets up private practice; marries Martha Bernays
1896: First use of the term 'psychoanalysis'; death of his father
1899: Publishes 'The Interpretation of Dreams' in December with the publication date of '1900'. Freud's favorite book containing dozens of dream analyses on '"the royal road to the unconscious"
1887: Freud treats nervous diseases in his practice; introduces hypnotic suggestion
1891: Freud writes 'On Aphasia', about language disorders and neurology
1893-6: Works with Josef Breuer on case histories (including that of 'Anna O') which later become 'Studies on Hysteria' (1895). Introduces the idea that the symptoms of hysteria were symbolic representations of traumatic memories, often of a sexual nature.
1897: Freud's self-analysis begins, leading to the abandonment of the
trauma theory of neurosis (developed with Breuer), recognition of infantile sexuality and the 'Oedipus complex'
1899: Publishes 'The Interpretation of Dreams' in December with the publication date of '1900'. Freud's favourite book containing dozens of dream analyses on '"the royal road to the unconscious".
1906: Freud becomes friend and colleague of the Swiss adherent of psychoanalysis, Carl Gustav Jung
1909: Freud and Jung travel to the U.S.A. and give the Clark Lectures: first lectures on psychoanalysis in America. (Freud is not enamored of America; calls it a "big mistake"
1877: He abbreviates his name from Sigismund Schlomo Freud to Sigmund Freud.
1939: Dies in London on 23 September.
1920: Death of daughter, Sophie. Publishes 'Beyond the Pleasure Principle' which introduces new theories of the 'compulsion to repeat' and the concept of the 'death drive', as well as a revision of the 1900 theory of dreams as wish fulfilments. 6th International Psychoanalytic Congress held at the Hague (the first after the War)
1921: Publishes 'Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego'
1923 'The Ego and the Id' deals with a new account of the structure of the mind, revising the 'conscious/pre-conscious/ unconscious' distinction to be found in 'The Interpretation of Dreams'
Main theories Sigmund Freud developed:
Psychosexual Development/ Infantile Sexuality/Psyche
Psychoanalysis/ Defense Mechanisms
a repressed memory of an early childhood sexual abuse or molestation experience was the essential precondition for hysterical or obsessional symptoms, with the addition of an active sexual experience up to the age of eight for the latter.
This theory requires two conditions:
1. A development of a certain disorder such as hysteria
2. The memory of the abuse must be unconscious
Evidence and Impact on Society
Freud did present his theory to society until it was accepted claiming that society was not ready to handle the clinical case stories about sexual abuse because of the manner they were retrieved
Freud later in a letter privately abandoned this theory in 1889 claiming it would never be accepted by society. He wrote in a letter to Wilhelm Fliess the four major reasons why.
The theory was not publicly abandoned by Freud until 1906
Freud could not back up this theory claiming how the unconscious mind itself could not determine what was reality or fantasy
There are two regions of the mind, the conscious and unconscious, he principle of causality requires that such mental states should exist, for it is evident that there is frequently nothing in the conscious mind which can be said to cause neurotic or other behavior.
He believes that nothing you do occurs by chance; every action and thought is motivated by your unconscious at some level. In order to live in a civilized society, you have a tendency to hold back our urges and repress our impulses. However, these urges and impulses must be released in some way; they have a way of coming to the surface in disguised forms.
One way these urges and impulses are released is through your dreams. Because the content of the unconscious may be extremely disturbing or harmful, Freud believes that the unconscious expresses itself in a symbolic language.
Parts to a Dream:
what the dreamer remembers
the symbolic meaning of the dream/the underlying wish
the process whereby the underlying wish is translated into the manifest content is
the joining of two or more ideas/images into one
takes place when we transform the person or object we are really concerned about to someone else
occurs when the unconscious mind strings together wish-fulfilling images in a logical order of events, further obscuring the latent content
(possibility) something that occurs as the same meaning for everyone in a dream
Freud believed that children are born with a libido – a sexual (pleasure) urge. There are a number of stages of childhood, during which the child seeks pleasure from a different ‘object’.
This particular theory shows how adult personality is determined by their childhood experiences.
The complex of emotions aroused in a young child, typically around the age of four, by an unconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a wish to exclude the parent of the same sex.
Going Back to Oedipus:
Before Oedipus was born, his father Laius was informed by an Oracle that if he had a son, Laius would die at his hand. Three days following his birth, Oedipus was given by his mother Jocasta to a shepherd, with instructions that he be cast away to perish. In other words: she abandoned her infant son to die. Discovered by another shepherd on a mountainside, Oedipus was brought to the childless King of Corinth, Polybus and his wife Merope, who raised him as their own son. Oedipus did not know that he was adopted.
the drive towards death, self-destruction and the return to the inorganic: "the hypothesis of a death instinct, the task of which is to lead organic life back into the inanimate state"
Three problematic areas the theory reveals
3. Clinical practice