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The French Revolution and Napoleon - Part II

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Mr. Smith

on 21 January 2015

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Transcript of The French Revolution and Napoleon - Part II

The French Revolution and Napoleon - Part II
Napoleon Seizes Power

Conquering Europe

Napoleon Creates an Empire

Napoleon Crowned as Emperor
1804

Restoring Order at Home

Napoleon Rules France

In 1795, Napoleon defeats royalist rebels attacking the National Convention

Hero of the Hour

Chapter 7, section 3

Napoleon Forges an Empire

The French Empire

The Battle of Trafalgar

Loss of American Territories

Vote of Approval

Coup d’Etat

Napoleon Bonaparte
-Born in Corsica
-Attends military school
(9 years old)
-Joins army
(16 years old)

Early Life

War between France and the rest of Europe is still continuing
Napoleon wins stunning victories in Italy, gaining popularity
News of his defeats in Egypt suppressed

Grape shot
I can be your hero baby!!!
I mean Delegates
lol. #stupidautocorrect
Uses previous knowledge
and is victorious within minutes

Hailed as the savior of the French Republic
Napoleon becomes leader of the French Army
1796 The Directory (5 man executive branch) appoints Napoleon as the leader of the French army (Italy)
- Against Austria and Sardinia
- Italy 1796- very successful
- Austria loses and wants peace 1797
With success against Austria in Italy the only enemy left is Britain
- Really good navy


1798
Napoleon leads his forces to Egypt
- Protect French trade with India/disrupt
British trade with India





Egypt
Battle of the Nile

Naval defeat
Napoleon's fleet is destroyed by Britain's navy
- Horatio Nelson (British naval commander)
Napoleon was able to keep the story from leaking out to France. (Still a hero)

1799
Napoleon abandons his forces in the Middle East and heads back to France
1799 The Directory loses control of France (very unpopular)
- People are still hungry and the country is still very poor


Napoleon returns from Egypt
- He is encouraged to take over
1799 November

Military leaders tell the National Legislature that there is a Jacobian revolt

- They encourage them to leave Paris and head to an
estate west of the city where Napoleon will be waiting
to protect them


- They arrive and Napoleon uses his army to surround
the estate to protect them

- Napoleon goes inside the estate and makes them upset

- He goes outside and tells his forces they are becoming
violent



Army is able to force most of the legislature out and the remaining members are forced to vote to dissolve the Directory


First Consul
- The Directory is now replaced with 3 Consuls
- Napoleon is First Consul = Dictator
-Coup d'Etat -"Blow to the state"
France still at war!!! 1799
- Britain, Austria, Russia want to take Napoleon
out of power
1802 - Through war and diplomacy peace was reached
1789
King
1799
Dictator
"dare to be different"
Napoleon pretends to be constitutionally chosen by a free republic
See you later!!!
1800

- Plebiscite (vote of the people) was held to approve a new
constitution (4th attempt)

- People see the military as the only strong standing/
governing body within France in recent history

- Votes are strongly in favor of a new constitution
Napoleon is now First Consul
1800
#winning
Napoleon will keep many of the changes brought upon France during the Revolution intact
- supported laws which strengthened the central
government and achieved the goals of the Revolution
The French Economy
Napoleon set up an efficient system to collect taxes
Government Corruption
Napoleon dismissed corrupt government employees




Lycees- Government run school which were created to
provide France with well trained officials
- Male
- Once graduated these young men would be
given jobs based on their merit. WHY?
I believe in Napoleon
Religion
Napoleon signed a Concordat (agreement) with the pope

- France recognized the church
- Church could not become involved in national affairs

Why would he sign this concordat (agreement)?
To gain support from the Catholic Church and the people like this
Napoleonic Code
- comprehensive laws

- France now has a uniform set of laws
- Eliminated injustices
- Limited liberty (freedom)
- Promoted order and authority

AKA?
Social Contract
Freedom of press was restricted
Slavery was reinstated in French colonies
1804
I want to be
Emperor...
Napoleon desired to be Emperor

People vote/support
Took crown from Pope and placed it upon his own head
- more powerful than the church
Napoleon controls all of France
Now he want the rest of Europe
Wants to reinstate French power in America
1789 - Enlightenment ideals along with the ideas of the revolutionaries are spreading across the globe
Planters and Slaves demand the same rights and privileges as everyone else in France.

- Civil war erupts and chaos insues
- Napoleon wants sugar production back
- French forces are soon defeated by both the
rebels and disease
Napoleon cuts his losses and gives up
1803- Napoleon sells Louisiana to America for $15 million
(Louisiana purchase)
- Reason is to punish Britain - makes America stronger

Thanks Napoleon
Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden join forces against Napoleon

Napoleon crushes enemy forces in Several brilliant battles (unpredictable)
# Kickingbutt(NBD)

Napoleon crushes his opponents and forces Austria, Russia, Sweden to sign peace treaties
1805, British win Battle of Trafalgar

-Ensures British naval superiority
This defeat forces Napoleon to give up plan of invading Britain

Looks for another way to control Britain

Napoleon Controls Europe except for Britain, Portugal, Sweden and Ottomans

Has puppet rulers in some countries, alliances with others

French Empire reaches largest extent from 1807 to 1812

Same building the revolutionaries stormed in 1793 when Prussia was about to enter Paris
Battle of Austerlitz
1805
- 4 hours
- Napoleon fought 100,000 men (Russia and Austria)
- He was the underdog

France captured:
- 30,000 men
- 20 Generals
- 120 cannons
No Humility!!!
Napoleon's Empire Collapses






Ch 7 Section 4
Napoleon's Costly Mistakes
1. The Continental System
November 1806

Napoleon sets up a Blockade around Great Britain.

What is a blockade?
- A forcible closing of ports
This prevented trade and communications between Great Britain and other countries.
Napoleon called this the "Continental System"
(making continental Europe self sufficient)
What problems could arise and how could you fix that problem?
Naploleon did not set the blockade very tight and smugglers were able to get by.
-Also he wanted to destroy Great Britain's economy
The British responded with their own blockade and with a stronger navy were more successful.
- British forced ships heading to Europe and forced them to go to Great Britain to be searched and taxed
How do you think this made the Americans feel?
This eventually led to the war of 1812
2. The Peninsular War
1808- attempting to force Portugal to accept the Continental System sent his army though Spain.
How would this make the Spanish feel/react?
Napoleon removed the Spanish King and placed his own brother Joseph on the throne.
Spain is a devout Catholic country and were worried that this action would lead to removing or at least weaken the church in Spain as the French Revolution had in France.
Spanish peasant farmers (Guerrillas) fought the French Army for the next 6 years.
Napoleon could not fight this force on a traditional battle field and ended up losing 300,000 men in the process.
(Great Britain aided the Spanish)
France is substantially weaker because of this
3. The Invasion of Russia
1812-
Alexander I (Russian Czar) is an ally of Napoleon
Napoleon demanded that Russia stop selling grain to Great Britain.

Alexander refuses.
They both suspected the other to be planning on taking over Poland.

Alliance breaks down
June 1812-
Napoleon and his "Grand Army" of 420,000 invade Russia.
As Napoleon advanced Alexander retreated Knowing he was unmatched.

While retreating Russia implemented the
"Scorched Earth Policy" - Burning/ destroying everything so the enemy can not use the surrounding area to their advantage.
- This included buildings, live stock, farm land, etc.


September 7 1812-
BATTLE!!!

Battle of Borodino-
Few hours of fighting until the Russians retreat and Napoleon can move on to Moscow
Napoleon arrives at Moscow 7 days later-

Alexander I ordered it to be burned and destoyed rather than to surrender it to the French.
October 1812- Napoleon heads home- France
Russian winter set in in early November
Small bands of Russian forces attack Napoleons army

Many soldiers die from the attacks. Others from disease and hunger.
December 1812-
Napoleon and his "Grand Army" of now only 10,000 arrive in France.
Spain protested
Hey Russia I can't trust you anymore I think we should break up
France
Ok Boys lets
go home!!!
Napoleon's Downfall
Hello My name is:
Napoleon
WAR!!!!

- Soon after the return from Russia, France's enemies begin to take advantage of their weakened state.

Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden joined forces and declared war on France
A few months later Napoleon had a new untrained army
European Powers VS. France
October 1813
Leipzig
(Germany)
Napoleon suffers defeat!!!!
January 1814 - the Allied powers were heading toward Paris

March 1814 - Russia and Prussia have a victory parade in the streets of Paris.
April 1814-

Napoleon wants to keep fighting

His Generals refuse
Lets do this thing!
No my feet hurt!!!
April 1814 -

Napoleon accepts surrender
I accept
Napoleon was given a small pension and exiled on the island of Elba
The Hundred Days
Louis XVIII comes to power as the king of France

Louis XVI's brother (son is dead)


Louis XVIII becomes very unpopular
-People believe he was reversing certain revolutionary changes
Napoleon uses this public outcry as a reason to escape
March 1st 1815 :
The beginning of The Hundred Days
Napoleon returns to France and builds an army

- People are excited and joyous with his return
- Thousands volunteer for his army
- Within days Napoleon is again emperor of France
Soon the European Allies hear Napoleon has reurned and they gear up for war.
The British forces were lead by
The Duke of Wellington
Waterloo, Belgium June 18th 1815

- Napoleon attacks the British
- The British hold their ground all day
- Prussians reinforce the British in the afternoon
- The British and Prussians advance on Napoleon
- Napoleons troops route two days later.
Learning their lesson the European powers exile Napoleon far away to the remote island of St. Helena
The End
Napoleon died on May 5th 1821 of stomach
- He was 51
70-80,000 VS 120-130,000
Napoleon England/Prussia
The Congress of Vienna
Chapter 7 Section 5
The Congress of Vienna - 1814-1815

- Series of meetings in Vienna (Austria)
- Took place after the final defeat of Napoleon
- Goal: set up policies to establish long lasting
peace and stability in Europe.
The meeting was only supposed to last 4 weeks but it ended up taking 8 months
(Mainly Winter of 1814 - 1815)
Those at the meeting included representatives from:
Austria, Russia, France, Britain, and Prussia.
The leader of this meeting was Austrian foreign minister:
Klemins Von Metternich
-Disliked democratic ideals
- Wanted to keep things the
way they were
Metternich had 3 main goals
1. The containment of France
2. Balance of power
3. Legitimacy
1. The containment of France
- Changes were made to surrounding countries to make
them stronger
- France could would not be able to easily attack anyone
2. Balance of Power
- Weakened but did not destroy France
(Destruction = Revenge)
- No country could easily over power
another
3. Legitimacy
- Restoring Monarchs who were removed from office
during Napoleon's reign and placed back on the throne

- The return of monarchs could bring back stability.
The Congress of Vienna was very successful
It promoted and maintained peace within Europe for over 40 years.
- Agreed to come to another countries
aid if a country is threatened
Political Changes-
- The Congress of Vienna was a big win for
conservatives
- Kings and Princes regained their power all
over Europe
Britain and France are now
constitutional monarchs
Threats of Revolution-
- The ideals of revolution still
resonated throughout Europe
- Made monarchs nervous

1815- Russia/Prussia/Austria all sign the Holy Alliance
The Holy Alliance
WAR!!!!

- Soon after the return from Russia, France's enemies begin to take advantage of their weakened state.

Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden joined forces and declared war on France
- Pledge to base foreign policy on Christian
principles to combat revolutionary ideas
Concert of Europe- Series of alliances
- Ensured nations would support one
another in case their is a revolution
within their country.
The Legacy of Democracy
- The French revolution although a
failure set political ideals in motion
- It inspired many upheavals in the 1800's
Soon more and more people saw democracy as the best way to ensure equality and justice for all.
The Congress of Vienna
1815

- Re-draws national boundaries
- Restores balance of power
- Set up policies to establish long lasting
peace and stability in Europe
Revolution in Latin America

This angered the Mexicans.

They revolt and successfully removed Spain’s control.
Other Spanish colonies in Latin America also claimed independence.

At about the same time, Brazil declared independence from Portugal.
The Congress of Vienna had consequences beyond the boarders of Europe.
The Congress of Vienna restored the king to the Spanish throne.

Royalist peninsulares (colonists born in Spain) tried to regain control of these colonial governments.

The Creoles attempted to retain and expand their power.
In response, the Spanish king took steps to tighten control over the American colonies.
Napoleon deposed the king of Spain during the Peninsular War





Liberal Creoles (colonists born in Spanish America) seized control of many colonies in the Americas.

The actions of the Congress of Vienna helped to generate an independence movement in Latin America
Full transcript