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Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
Transcript of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
Adriana Prlic, and Tamara Wikkerink Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Historical Background 1941,1947 brain damage syndrome (Dowdy 15) minimal brain dysfunction (Dowdy 15) 1962 1968 hyperkinetic reaction of childhood (Dowdy 15) attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) (Dowdy 15) 1980 attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) (Dowdy 15) 1980 1987 attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Dowdy 15) 1987 undifferentiated attention deficit disorder (U-ADD) (Dowdy 15) 1992 hyperkinetic disorders (Dowdy 15) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD or ADHD) (Dowdy 15) 1994 •ADD is a high incidence learning disability (National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials 2010).
•5 percent of all children in the United States (Brown 15).
•Boy-to-girl ratios ranging between 2:1 and 6:1 (Brown 15).
•70% of those with ADD as a child or adolescent will have it continue through into adulthood (Kaye 184).
•There is strong evidence for a genetic predisposition (Kaye 184). Incidence What does it look like? 3 main types of ADD
i.)AD/HD combined type
ii.)AD/HD Predominantly Inattentive Type
iii.)AD/HD Predominantly Hyperactive - Impulsive Type 3 categories of symptoms
i. Inattention Symptoms
ii. Hyperactivity Symptoms
iii. Impulsivity Symptoms Inattention Symptoms
•Fail to give close attention to details / makes careless mistakes
•Trouble holding attention to any given task
•Does not seem to listen even if being spoken directly to
•Doesn’t follow instruction / doesn’t finish assigned tasks
•Loses things necessary for tasks or activities
•Is easily distracted
•Forgetful in daily activities Hyperactivity Symptoms
•Can’t sit still
•Runs and climbs excessively when inappropriately
•Difficulty playing or socializing with others
•Always “on the go”
•Talkative Impulsivity Symptoms
•Difficulty waiting turns
•Interrupts or intrudes on others HELPFUL WEBSITES
www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm Bibliography Brown, Ronald T., et al. Childhood Mental Health Disorders. Washington: American Psychological Association, 2008. Print.
Dowdy, Carol A., et al. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Classroom: A Practical Guide for Teachers. Austin: Pro-Ed, 1998. Print.
Goldstein, Sam, and Michael Goldstein. Hyperactivity: Why Won't My Child Pay Attention? New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. Print.
Kaye, David L., Maureen E. Montgomery, and Stephen W. Munson, eds. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002. Print.
Matthews, Dawn D. Attention Deficit Disorder Sourcebook. Omnigraphics, 2002. Print.
National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials. "What Are Low-incidence Disabilities?"
National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials. CAST, Inc., 5 Nov. 2010. Web. 06 Sept. 2012.
Schwartz-Green, Linda and Diane Casale-Giannola. 40 Active Learning Strategies for the Inclusive Classroom: K-5. Thousand Oaks: Corwin A Sage Company, 2011.
Woolfolk, Anita and Nancy E. Perry. Child and Adolescent Development. Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2012.
"Self-regulated learning concept map."
Melinda Smith, M.A., and Robert Segal, M.A. "ADD / ADHD in Children" helpguid.org.Web. May 2012.
Buggie, Burrows et. al. Ministry of Education Special EducationTeaching "Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. A Resource Guide for Teachers" Web. 2012
Famous & Noable People with with AttentionIssue traits. (ADD/ADHD), http://www.adhdrelief.com/famous.html . Web 2012
Dornbush, M., Pruitt, S. Teaching the Tiger. Hope Press.,1997. Which one of these children may have ADD/ADHD?
A) The hyperactive boy who talks nonstop and can’t sit still.
B) The quiet dreamer who sits at her desk and stares off into space.
C) Both A and B AD/HD Combined Type
•6 + symptoms of inattention
•6 + symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity
•Been persistent over the last 6 months AD/HD Predominantly Inattentive Type
•6 + symptoms of inattention
•6 – symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity
•Have persisted over at least 6 months AD/HD Predominantly Hyperactive – Impulsive Type
•6 + symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity
•6 – symptoms of inattention
•Persisted for at least 6 months In the Classroom Generally display ongoing patterns of
inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Students may display the following
* Difficulty starting activities
* Difficulty focusing
* Disorganized and difficulty following
* Easily distracted
* The need to always be moving...
always on the go
* Verbally impulsive
* Difficulty dealing with change in routine
* Poor outcome of work in some cases
* Often requires more supervision Invisible Adaptations Strategies: Elementary Context A real teacher with simple strategies: *Movement and Novelty will often interest and motivate students with attention issues (Kounin, 1977). Active learning strategies can engage the learner who has difficulty with attention and hyperactivity by providing movement and kinesthetic activities and presenting information and learning activities in brief intervals. (Schwartz-Green, Linda and Diane Casale-Giannola. 40 Active Learning Strategies for the Inclusive Classroom. pg. 23-24.)
*Preventing Behavioural Problems in the Classroom through Management techniques (Reif, Sandra F. How to Reach and Teach ADD/ADHD Children, pg. 19.)
*Provide Multi-sensory intruction that combine more than one modality which can enhance the student's ability to remember and understand information and directions Stuart Shanker - Self-regulation *self-regulation is learned
*regulation of ones own cognitive processes and studying behaviours in order to learn successfully
*production deficiency - young children may be able to use a strategy, but they might not employ it when they should
*children can learn to apply more effective strategies to solve problems either through instruction or by discovery (instruction more efficient)
-self-regulation nurtures the ability to cope with greater challenges (it is not compliance) Clarity of Expectations: *teach your rules
*explain the rationale for your expectations
*post rules (written or pictoral) in a visible spot
*communicate rules and expectations to
parents in writing
*with every expectation communicate
(1)Explain (2)Write it down (3)Demonstrate
(4)let students practice Teaching what is acceptable and
unacceptable in your classroom *Use positive re-inforcement to build self-esteem and respect
*reward with privileges to individuals
*Classroom incentives Structure and Routine: *Schedules and clear agendas
*proper planning by teacher deter behaviour problems
*establish routines that enable the students to check understanding with peer Predictability and
Consistency Repetition, practice and modeling of
behavioural expectations: Clear and fair consequences Follow Through Understanding, flexibility and patience Prevention Tactics Communication and Relationship *Baggie stories *Ball Toss *Barometer
*Chain Reaction *Classification Capers
*Classroom Box Bingo *Four Corners
*Howdy Partner *Line up!
*Listening Needs *Outline Plus
*People Movers *Play doh construction
*Puzzle Pieces *Rainbow Ball
*Round Robin *Snowball Fight
*Spider Web *Think, pair, share
*Two truths and a lie *Venn Hoops
*What's in the Bag *Who am I? What am I?
*Conversation Cards *Conversation cues Goal Setting -students should set specific goals in order to be successful
-teach criteria Planning -students need to plan out a timeline and resources that identifies specific tasks for them Self-motivation -students need to use self-efficacy strategies such as rewarding themselves after a certain number of tasks have been accomplished Attention Control -students need to focus on their specific goals and get rid of distrations
-teacher can restate and repeat classroom management criteria Flexible use of learning strategies -students should use strategies that help them obtain their goal
-teacher introduces students to these strategies and finds those that best fit the particular situation Self-monitoring -students should check their progress constantly and adjust their tasks accordingly Appropriate help-seeking -students should seek help from others when they need it
-students can set up specific time that they can meet with classroom teacher Self-Evaluation -students should use their self evaluation to determine if they reached their goal and review the strategies they used to get their
-use of formative assessment strategies Self-Regulated Learning
Self-Assessment *take photos of students engaged in positive behaviours (have them visible in classroom)
*use cross-age tutors or peers to model specific types of behaviour that students may be having difficulties with
*use preventive cueing techniques (predetermined hand signal or word signal for student)
*daily colour coded cards (students start with clean slate each day) *decide together what privileges might be lost *put consequences into production so that students understand results of inappropriate behaviour
*if you don't follow through with consequences the behaviour will continue
*establish a hierarchy of consequences to be
used when classroom rules are repeatedly
broken, use them consistently and in a timely
manner *proximity control within classroom
*students with ADD/ADHD should be seated close to the teacher and next to or between well-focused students
*include some behaviours in which the student is certain to succeed in when
setting reinforcers so that
the student achieves a
feeling of success *create behaviour contract with students specifying what behaviour is expected and what the reinforcement will be when the behaviour/task is completed
*involve student in setting goals to reduce or increase the target behaviours and establish a system to monitor and reinforce behavioural change
*avoid "don't" statements
*involve school counsellor for assistance
*need parental involvement and support *talk to student in private when there is a problem
*give warning and cues
*restate guidelines, limits and consequences in a quiet calm manner
*take into consideration the environmental conditions such as where the student is sitting, beside whom is the student sitting and what type of activity the students is engaged in
*behaviour can be offset by things that occured at home *build a positive and understanding relationship with all your students
*communicate with parents
*use a simple system for recording each incident of target behaviour you wish to observe with simple codes Assessment story sharing - brainstorming
conference with students
tell a story - draw what they know
performing a skill - KWL FOR Peer and self assessment - Portfolios - Think pair share
Graphic Organizers - Traffic light cube or Prism (show understanding - Ticket out the door - Journal - 30 Second speech - Gallery walk of student work - Blogging AS OF Inquiry project - Mind Map - Presentation
Readers Theatre - Debate - Showcase - Poster Brochure - Model/Diorama - Poetry Cafe - Interview Classroom Based Strategies Structure classroom activities that
require active learning and a high
response from students
*structure partner activities Teach students organizational skills
that will help them to complete
*Provide students with day at a glance
that can be used as checklist on their
desk as assignments are completed Use strategies to maximize positive
interaction with students and minimize
opportunities for disruptive behaviour
*MOVE around the classroom
*Establish eye contact with most students
*Comment on positive rather than negative Students with AD/HD can be
taught to monitor their own
behaviour. The challenge for
a teacher is to provide structure
while helping to develop in the
child a sense of control in life. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder must be diagnosed by a Physician or specially trained Psychologist as it is a neurological disorder. The diagnosis must be congruent to the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). To further solidify a diagnosis, psycho-educational testing can be completed as an aid. Following are the criteria outlining different symptoms of ADHD and can direct the diagnosis towards one of 3 types of ADHD. The symptoms must have persisted for more than 6 months, and have been observed prior to the age of 7 Diagnosis - tools, proceedures, and how we fit into diagnosing ?What/How? Note: These Ministry Diagnostic Criteria and DSM IV symptoms are from the BC Ministry of Education Website
(the symptoms are paraphrased on the Ministry website from the DSM IV)
•blurts out answers before questions have been completed.
•has difficulty awaiting turn.
•interrupts or intrudes on others, e.g., butts into conversations or games.
•fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.
•leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.
•runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate. (In adolescents or adults this may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness.)
•has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly.
•is "on the go" or acts as if "driven by a motor."
•fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, or other related activities, i.e., work often appears messy or seems performed carelessly and without considered thought.
•has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.
•does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
•does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties. (This is due to inattention and not due to a failure to understand instructions.)
•has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.
•avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort, e.g., homework or paperwork.
•loses things necessary for tasks or activities, e.g. toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools.
•is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli that are usually easily ignored by others, e.g. a car honking, a background conversation.
•forgetful in daily activities, e.g., missing appointments, forgetting to bring lunch After diagnosis, support is offered through a school based team. Further support may be offered through a District Based School Psychologist. This person is able to observe the student in a classroom setting to gather data that may help the teacher, parents and peers. They will be able to analyze the students cognitive ability and school achievement in order to determine the strengths and needs of the individual. (BC Ministry of Education) *Focus on Kinesthetic
learners, visual and audio