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How to teach Vocabulary

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Fernando García Villamizar

on 24 January 2015

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Transcript of How to teach Vocabulary

3 Classroom sources of words
4 Texts, dictionaries and corpora
2 How words are learned
5 How to present vocabulary
7 Teaching word parts and word chunks
UIS
Bucaramanga
2014
.
.
Texts
vocabulary
How to teach
Ernesto Arenas
Fernando García
Carol Pimiento

1 Presenting vocabulary
2 Using translation
EXPOSURE
What are the implications for teaching?
Short texts:
Vocabulary
6 How to put words to work
1 What's in a word?
'A word is a microcosm of human consciousness'. (Vygotsky)
The coining of new words never stops.
In
a
village
of
La
Mancha,
the
name
of
which
I
have
no
desire
to
call
to mind, there lived
not
long
since
one
of
those
gentlemen
that
keep
a
lance
in the
lance-rack, an old buckler, a
lean
hack, and
a
greyhound
for
coursing.
An
olla
of
rather more
beef than
mutton,
a
salad
on
most
nights,
scraps
on
Saturdays,
lentils
on Fridays,
and
a pigeon
or so
extra
on
Sundays,
made
away
with
three‐quarters
of his
income.
The rest
of
it
went
in a
doublet
of
fine
cloth
and
velvet
breeches
and shoes
to
match
for holidays,
while
on week‐days
he
made
a
brave
figure
in
his best
homespun.
He
had in
his
house
a housekeeper
past
forty,
a
niece
under twenty,
and
a
lad
for
the
field and
market‐place, who
used
to
saddle
the
hack
as well
as
handle
the
bill‐hook.
The age
of
this
gentleman
of
ours
was
bordering
on fifty;
he
was
of
a
hardy
habit,
spare, gaunt‐featured,
a
very early
riser
and
a great
sportsman.
They
will
have
it
his surname
was
Quixada
or
Quesada (for here
there
is
some
difference
of
opinion among
the
authors
who
write
on
the subject),
although
from
reasonable
conjectures it
seems
plain
that
he
was
called Quexana. This, however, is
of
but little
importance to
our
tale;
it
will
be
enough not
to
stray
a hair's breadth
from
the
truth
in
the
telling of
it.
En un lugar de la Mancha, de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarme, no ha mucho tiempo que vivía un hidalgo de los de lanza en astillero, adarga antigua, rocín flaco y galgo corredor. Una olla de algo más vaca que carnero, salpicón las más noches, duelos y quebrantos los sábados, lentejas los viernes, algún palomino de añadidura los domingos, consumían las tres partes de su hacienda. El resto della concluían sayo de velarte, calzas de velludo para las fiestas con sus pantuflos de lo mismo, y los días de entre semana se honraba con su vellori de lo más fino. Tenía en su casa una ama que pasaba de los cuarenta, y una sobrina que no llegaba a los veinte, y un mozo de campo y plaza, que así ensillaba el rocín como tomaba la podadera. Frisaba la edad de nuestro hidalgo unos cincuenta años, era de complexión recia, seco de carnes, enjuto de rostro; gran madrugador y amigo de la caza. Quieren decir que tenía el sobrenombre de Quijada o Quesada (que en esto hay alguna diferencia en los autores que deste caso escriben), aunque por conjeturas verosímiles se deja entender que se llama Quijana; pero esto importa poco a nuestro cuento; basta que en la narración dél no se salga un punto de la verdad.
L2 learners experience
bewilderment with some words
Unfamiliar
Novel & Obscure
No representation
in their L1
Form
Meaning
I like looking for bits and pieces like old second-hand record players and doing them up to look like new.
Word classes
Content words
An open set

There is no limit in the number of content words that can be added to the language.
airbag, emoticon, carjacking, cybersex, quark.
Prepositions, conjunctions, determiners and pronouns
Grammatical words or function words
A closed set

The last time a pronoun was added to the language was in the early 16th century. It was them.)
Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs
Word families
Look
Looks
Looking
Looked
Look
Word + affix
Inflexion
Derivative
plays - played - playing
player - replay - playful
Word formation
Identifying words
Multi-word units
Collocations
Compounding
Blending
Conversion
Clipping
dishwaser - wildflower - record player
breakfast + lunch = brunch
information + entertainment = infotainment
Let's brunch tomorrow
She upped and left
flu (from influenza)
e-mail (from electronic mail)
Homonyms
Polysemes
Synonyms and antonyms
Lexical chunks
A Lexeme is a group of words that function as a meaning unit.
How fixed they are? How idiomatic? Are they sentence frames?
What about phrasal verbs?
out of the blue - well and truly - bits and pieces - Year after year - a lot of - swung round - lay off
Two words are collocates if they occur together with more than chance frequency.
A record number - this week - once again - defending champions - once again - first time
Hyponyms
Lexical field
Style/register & connotation
Same form but unrelated meaning
Same sound but spelt different
Same spelling but different sound
Homonyms
Homophones
Homographs
well - bat - fair
horse & hoarse - tail & tale
a windy day & long a windy road
Multiple but related meanings
I held the picture up to the light.
I was held overnight in a cell.
You need to hold a work permit.
Mrs Smith is holding a party next week.
The theatre itself can hold only a limited number of people.
The offer still holds.
Synonyms: similar meaning
old - aged - ancient - antique - elderly
but: old record player instead of an aged record player.


Antonyms: opposite meaning
butopposite of:
old woman - young woman, not new woman
old record player - new record player, not young record player.
tool
hammer
saw
screwdriver
fretsaw
chainsaw
jigsaw
CHRISTMAS
What's connected to this idea?
Choice of words is an indicator of style and place of origin.
'Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.'
David Wilkins.
How important is vocabulary?
What does it mean to 'know a word'?
How is our word knowledge organised?
How is vocabulary learned?
How many words does a learner need to know?
How are words remembered?
Why do we forget words?
What makes a word difficult?
What kind of mistake do learners make?
If you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see more improvement if you learn more words and expression.
Direct method
Audiolingualism
Communicative
Approach
Emphasis on grammar
Emphasis on grammar
Re-think vocabulary role
The communicative value of a core vocabulary has always been recognized...
especially by tourists
'Vocabulary acquisition is the largest and most important task facing the language learner'
(Swan and Walter, 1984.)
Much more attention is given today to vocabulary in coursebooks.
Strong emphasis on vocabulary, with particular focus on high frequency useful words and phrases.
At the most basic level, it involves knowing its form and its meaning.
course
Meaning
Classes, sports area, development, direction, meal, medical treatment, layer, to flock.
Spoken form
Written form
course
Grammatical behaviour
It can be used as a noun an adverb.
Can be countable or uncountable.
Inflexions and derivatons
courses
coursed
coursing
Collocations
of course
the course
(subject) course
course of
crush course
Register
Formal or informal (depending on the meaning)

Connotation
Used all over the English-speaking world

in the course of time (UK)
Frequency
The way words are stored in the mind resembles less a dictionary than a kind of network or web.
Dog!
Dog!
Dog!
Toys
Pictures
Animals
Labelling
Categorising
Network Building
Mental Lexicon
In what ways is the development of a second language lexicon any different from that of the first language?
L1
Conceptual system
Network associations
L2
Learn a new conceptual system
Construct a new vocabulary network
Russian
Sestra
Sestrionka
Bratik
Brat
Thanks Tati!
The cultural 'distance' between Spanish and Russian cultural system is relatively large, but for most language learners there will be much more that is shared than is foreign.

Even learning a very different language you don't have to relearn the concept of 'dog' or 'horse'.
The learner is likely to short-cut the process of constructing a network of associations - and simply map the word directly onto the mother tongue equivalent.
Crib
Cuna
But... the degree of semantic overlap between words in different languages can vary a lot.
Finger
Dedo
Toe
Clock
Watch
Reloj
Cognates
Real friends
False friends
Strangers
apartament - lunatic
gracious - constipation
empalagar - madrugar - cualcacino
Acquaintances
Learning a new language is like moving to a new town - it takes time to establish connections and turn acquaintances into friends. We never forget friends.
Educated native speaker: 20.000 word families
(1.000 words a year by the age of 5)

The Longman dictionary of Contemporary English boasts 80.000 words and phrases.

The Oxford English dictionary contains 250.000 entries.

Most adult second language learners will be lucky to have acquired 5.000 word families.
It all has to be with exposure...

18 years of classroom exposure would be needed to supply the same amount of vocabulary input that occurs in just one year in natural settings.
Why?
The amount of words you need depends on your necessity

Holiday trip
2.000
(amount of words most native speaker use in their daily conversations.

Equip learners with a
2.000
word vocabulary -
50
words a week -
40
weeks.

Most researchers recommend a basic vocabulary of at least
3.000
word families. For more specialised needs a working vocabulary over
5.000
word families.

Cambridge First Certificate Examination (FCE)
5.000
words (receptive)
Even when
2.500
(productive)

Just
570
word families related to academics.
HOWEVER
, the preocupation withvocabulary size overlooks the importance of
VOCABULARY DEPTH
(different degrees of knowledge)
queso (cheese)
understand & produce (speaking and writing) no effort

querer (want)
understand & produce, though need to think about past irregular forms

quedar (stay)
understand & produce but only in its main non-idiomatic senses

quirófano (operating teathre)
understand only in context & produced if prompted. No confident about stress

quiebra (bankruptcy)
understand only in context & can't produced even if prompted

quicio (hinge)
Not understand even in context & can't produce it.
Vocabulary knowledge is a question of accumulating individual items.
SHORT-TERM MEMORY
LONG-TERM MEMORY
WORKING-TERM MEMORY
Limited number of items or information for few seconds
Enormous capacity and its contents are durable over time.
Performs operations - Cognitive tasks: reasoning and understanding
How to move words to long-term memory?

Repetition - Retrieval - Spacing - Pacing - Use - Cognitive depth - Personal organising - Imaging - Mnemonics - Motivation - Attention arousal - Affective depth
Even with the best will in the world, studens forget words.
24 hours = 80% material lost
Some words are better retained
Time help to retain words
Recycling is fundamental
Easy
Difficult
Cognates: vocabulaire - Vocabolario - Vocabulary
Loanwords: Internet - t.v. - sciampo
False friends:
camera - carta - subire - salire - fermare

Pronunciation:
regular - lorry for Japanese learners
strenght - crisps - breakfast - sixth (consonant clusters)

Spelling:
foreign - listen - climbing - honest - muscle

Lengh, complexity and variable stress:
High frequency words tend to be short in English.
'necessary - ne'cessity - nece'ssarily

Grammar:
Explain - Explicar love/hate/like + ing look sth up - look after sth

Meaning:
Make and do - since and still

Range, connotation and idiomaticy
Form related
Meaning related
Mis-selections
Misformations
Spelling and Pronunciation errors
Similar sound or spelling

My girlfriend was very hungry with me.
He persuaded me to have a noise operation.
Misapplying word formation rules

In a peopleless island.
His hopeness of peace.
People looked emocionated.
Most of time I just watch shop's window.
Wrong choice of letters
(shell - shall)
Omission of letters (studing - studying)
Wrong order (littel - little)

Wrong choice of sound
(leave for live)
Addition of sounds
(eschool fro school)
Omission of sound
(poduk fro product)
Related meaning words
confused
I like
watching
flowers and
inhaling
their lovely smell.

I have fifteen years experience as a
particular professor
.

I live with my
fathers
in Mexico city.
LISTS
COURSE BOOKS
VOCABULARY
BOOKS
THE TEACHER
OTHER STUDENTS
ADVANTAGES

Large numbers of words in short time
30 words an hour can be learned
Translation deals with meaning and allows learners to test themselves
Non alphabetical order avoids form confusion
WORD CARDS
What factors are taken into account to select a coursebook vocabulary?

Core vocabulary
Frequency
Learnability
Teachability
How is vocabulary incorporated in course books?

Segreation (groups of words: lexical sets/ thematically
Integration (text based activities)
Incidentally (embedded in instructions - metalanguage)
Complications
GENERAL ASPECTS

Are targeted at specific needs (business, technical English, examinations)
Books focused on specific aspects: phrasal verbs - idioms - chunks)
Allow learners to work independentl.
Are design to test vocabulary rather than to teach it.
Lack opportunities to develope vocabulary (No more than 2 chances to make decisions about words).
GENERAL ASPECTS

Learners pick up a lot of incidential language from their teachers. (esp. words related with classroom processes.
They also offer useful interpersonal language through conversation (how are you? What did you do...?
Teachers anecdotes.
GENERAL ASPECTS

They are a fertile source of vocabuary.
Learners often pay more attention to what their classmates say.
Unfortunately, in many cases, learners are not given the opportunity to talk.
Sharing of knowledge (brainstorming activities)
Presentations and 'show and tell' give students an active role.
Books and readers:
Dictionaries:
Corpus data:
Nowadays there is a tendency to present vocabulary in short texts.
Words are in context.
Texts display lexical fields.
Can be subjected to grammatical and lexical use.
Provide useful models for students production.
Show lexical chains.
Indentification of genres and discourse markers.
The hunt is on for a live snake which could be on the loose in Auckland. The reptile has left behind a freshly shed skin in the inner-city suburb of Freeman's Bay. Experts believe it has come from a boa or phython nearly two metres long.
The best way of providing the necessary exposure is through extensive reading. Long texts.
Words can be found in their contexts of use.
Repeated encounters.
'Real' books tend to follow a topic over a length of text.
Variety of levels.
Opportunity to choose the kind of texts they like.
For long time its use was discouraged.
It was said that bilingual dictionaries could lead learners to over-rely on translation and to make mistakes.
Nowadays the role of dictionaries has be reassessed.
Bilingual
Monolingual
Visual
Is a collection of texts that has been assembled for the purposes of language study.
Consist of millions o words from academic texts, newspapers, articles, casual conversations from different varieties of English.
It is useful toprovide learners with attested rather than invented examples of words in context.
Provides information about frequency.
Shows new uses for words and new collocations
(...the convent where we usually never set foot.
Tickets are normally always available on ...)
3 How to illustrate meaning
4 How to explain meaning
5 How to highlight the form
6 How to involve learners
Take into account: level of s's - its familiarity - its difficulty - is it concrete or abstract? - is it for production or reception?
Economic way of teaching but it is said. 'No pain no gain'
Realia - Visual aids - Mnemonics
Example situations - Example sentences - Synonyms - Antonyms - Superordinate terms - Full definition
Listening drills - Oral drills - Boardwork
Provide one part of the total and ask for information (elicitation). - Personal involvement - Peer teaching - Information gap activities.
Decision making task


Production tasks


Games
Lexical chunks - Word grammar - Phrasal verbs - Idioms
Bibliography
THORNBURY, S. (2002) How to Teach Vocabulary. Essex: Pearson Educational Limited.



References

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/es
http://www.merriam-webster.com/
http://www.visualdictionaryonline.com/index.php
http://www.wordreference.com/
http://www.wordandphrase.info/frequencyList.asp
http://www.lextutor.ca/cgi-bin/conc/write/index.pl?lingo=English
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