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Chronicle: History

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Wendy Zhou

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of Chronicle: History

Chronicle of a Death Foretold Historical References Drama Action Colombia has experienced little foreign influence or immigration as a whole.
Immigration is actually often discouraged, especially if you are a non-Spaniard.
Those who entered from abroad were usually forced to live in their own groups, and discriminated against. Development of Society Last Minute Questions Arab Immigration Government Corruption Colombian Civil Wars Colombian Government Background Roman Catholicism in Colombia Pre-Colombus Era Romance Chronicle of a Death Foretold is a hybrid of literary genres: a journalistic account, psychological detective story, and work of allegorical fiction all mixed into one.
The story is loosely based on a murder that took place in Sucre, Colombia: Jan 22, 1951, two brothers in the Chica family murdered Cayetano Gentile Chimento because he had sex with their sister before her marriage. When her groom discovered her lack of virginity, he returned her to the Chica family, and the brothers killed the man who had deflowered her. NATIVE AMERICANS! And that's it... History Declared a Spanish colony in 1549, Colombia was organized into the vice-royalty of New Granada in 1717, along with what are now Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama.
With the defeat of the Spanish army in 1819, the Republic of Gran Colombia was formed as an independent state comprising the territory of the former vice-royalty. Colombia currently ranks 80 in the Corruption Perceptions Index.
Government corruption has plagued the country's history for centuries. It is mainly a result of the excess amount of drug trafficking, guerilla conflict, weak surveillance, and widespread apathy from society to unethical behavior. •In 1899, a Liberal revolt in Colombia fighting under Marxist maxims caused a civil war known as the War of a Thousand Days. The conflict resulted in the triumph of the Conservatives, as well as the independence of Panama. The latter received its independence through American intervention.
•There was a relative period of peace in Colombia, but Liberal and Conservative tensions brought the country into civil war again in 1948, a period now known as “La Violencia.” The conflict was caused as a result of the assassination of Liberal Party leader and presidential candidate Jorge Eliecer Gaitan. Massive street riots broke up in Bogota, known as the “Bogotazo” and led to the radicalization of the two parties in Colombia. The conflict led to the dictatorship of General Rojas , which might explain why the governor of Sucre was a colonel and not a civilian. His rule did not last long, in 1957 leaders of the Conservative and Liberal Parties signed treaties to control the country, and a plebiscite known as “Frente Nacional” eradicated the power of the dictatorship. Arab migration to the Caribbean coast of Colombia began in the 1880s.
The newcomers mostly came to settle in important port towns and coastal trading centers, where they initially engaged in small-scale peddling. Yet, due to their good sense of business, they often made a fortune becoming whole-sale import-export traders, fabric and plantation owners. In the first fifty years after the discovery of the Americas, the Spanish began to settle in present-day Colombia, introducing their culture and social system and imposing their values on the African slaves they imported and the indigenous population they conquered.
The Spanish created a hierarchical society in which they occupied the top stratum in terms of prestige, wealth, and power; slaves and Indians occupied the bottom. White skin became synonymous with being Spanish and therefore of high status.
The persistent supremacy and relative purity of the Spanish heritage was a key determinant of social class until the late 1900s. Wendy Zhou Melanie Hew
Tomas Thielen Lauren Shepard
Joseph Ramos Antonio Chahine Palacios HOWEVER, the work is not pure history. The author writes the murder in a narrative fashion and takes several fictional liberties in telling the story! IMPORTANT NOTE Colombia's history itself is like the novel: romance, drama, and gruesome action rolled into one. Before We Begin: Colombia is named after Columbus, who sadly never stepped foot in the country.
The settlement, in the 1500s, was associated with the quest for El Dorado: a land of gold mountains littered with emeralds.
Attracted by the story, the shores of present-day Colombia became the target of numerous settlements and expeditions by Spaniards. Spanish Conquest Key Info: The Spanish settled missionaries throughout their New World territory, thus leading to Roman Catholicism being the chief religion in the country today. Introduced to Colombia in 1508
Catholicism was the official religion of the country since Spanish colonization until 1991, when the National Constituent Assembly granted egalitarian treatment from the government to all religions
Before 1991, the Catholic Church was in charge of most of the public facilities, including teaching and health.
Colombia is also referred to as the Country of the Sacred Heart, with elaborate ceremonies performed by Bishops from time to time. Its involvement in political issues has been controversial, During the La Violencia, the media and some dissident priests such as Fidel Blandon denounced the Catholic Church for what they saw as an encouragement of the people to take violent actions against politically liberal opponents.
In the 1990s, they ruled abortion was illegal, even when an 11 year old girl was raped, and found pregnant.
The Church is a heavy supporter of the pro-life amendment, which aims to protect humans from conception all the way to natural death.
Throughout the late 1900s, the institution has also encouraged anti-immigration protests throughout the country Impact on Government Please justify your answer. How has the influence of the Catholic Church on Colombian policy impacted Marquez's view on religion? Colombian politics is marked by extraordinary violence. Citizens often resort to arms to resolve political differences.
Three presidential candidates were assassinated during the 1990 election alone, and others had attempts made on their lives. Political Instability The role Catholicism plays in determining government policy mirrors the novel: Father Amador is clearly a key authority figure in the village, and has a heavy influence on the daily life of villagers. How is this tendency for violence shown in the novel? Because the story took place in the mid-1900s, the Catholic Church is very much involved within the village where the murder took place.

Example: The bishop's arrival, Father Amador's authority, institutions "Just that we're looking for him to kill him." (pg 54)

"So he put the knife in his hand...in search of their sister's lost honor." (pg 61) How are the causes of Colombia's government corruption shown in the novel? "It can't be, because I took them away...he promised to take care of it at once, but he went into the social club to check on a date for dominoes." (pg 110)

"she reported it to a policeman" (pg 53)

"Colonel Aponte showed her the knives...and was at peace with his soul." (pg 57) "I didn't know what to do...it wasn't any business of mine...yet when he crossed the square, he'd forgotten completely." (pg 70)

"Everyone knew Santiago Nasar was about to die and they didn't dare touch him." (pg 102) The bystander effect is a reocurring theme in the novel.

The bystander effect is also a cause of many unsolved problems within Colombian history: guerilla warfare, political corruption, and high crime rate. “General Petronio San Roman, hero of the civil wars of the past century, and one of the major glories of the Conservative regime for having put Colonel Aureliano Buendia to flight in the disaster of Tucurinca.” (pg 33)

“It seems all right to me that they should get married,” she told me. “But that’s one thing and it’s something altogether different to shake hands with the man who gave the orders for Gerineldo Marquez to be shot in the back.” (pg 34) The new government that formed alternated power between the two parties and it banned any other political parties from forming. As a result, many Marxist guerilla terrorist groups began forming and terrorizing the populace in order to take control of the government. They were funded from Moscow and Habana, as their birth occurred during the peak of the Cold War. Some of the terrorist groups are: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) and the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN). As their support from Moscow decreased, they moved to production of cocaine and kidnapping to fund their violence. “Pedro Vicario, without love or a job, reenlisted in the armed forces three years later, earned his first sergeant’s stripes, and one fine morning his patrol went into guerrilla territory singing whorehouse songs and was never heard of again.” (pg 83)

Note: Ibrahim Nasar comes to the village after the end of the civil wars. Do you believe that the lack of the authority's interference with Santiago's murder is a key point in the novel?

If so, what do you think the author was trying to convey? Two major immigration waves can be clearly discerned in Colombia (and to a lesser degree in Curacão), with a much smaller amount of arrivals in between them. The first phase can be placed into the period between the late 19th century and the 1930s, while the second started in the mid 1970s and continues into the new millennium. "The Divine Face, the cattle ranch he'd inherited from his father." (pg 5)

"The Arabs comprised a community of peaceful immigrants who had settled at the beginning of the century in Caribbean towns...selling colored cloth and bazaar trinkets." (pg 81) How is this prejudice shown in Chronicle of a Death Foretold? "Revenge by the Arabs wasn't dismissed...they would wait for nightfall in order to pour gasoline through the skylight."(pg 81)

"He thought his money made him untouchable...just like all Turks." (pg 101) No just "yes or no" answers

EXPLAIN Do you believe that Santiago's heritage and class was a major reason as to why no one stopped his death? Given your now newfound knowledge on the historical influences in the book,let's review! BEST answer gets treats! Answers May Not Include:

"He's Colombian."

"The real-life murder took place in Colombia." Why do you think the author chose Colombia as the setting for his novel? When the Spanish arrived, they brought a authoritarian, patriarchal, and patrilineal culture. Legal reforms have extended equal rights to women, but tradition has dominated family relations for centuries.
Like said before, the Roman Catholic Church was also one of the single most impotant forces. The Spanish believed that it was necessary to conduct all marriage and family life. Development of Culture Key Info: Colombian culture is mainly derived from Spanish traditions. As is society. Will be further explained in a separate presentation. This is all reflectant in the novel, which contains the result of this development - class conflict, clashing of cultures, and the main theme of honor and machismo. Use Historical Context! Justify your answer with the facts we have learned about the general Colombian population's attitude towards foreigners and their general apathy. If the brothers were to kill Santiago for a reason besides their sister's honor, do you think the townspeople would have intervened? Colombia is the fifth most dangerous country in the world - with one of the highest numbers of unsolved crimes.
Bogota, Colombia is the most dangerous city in the world.
It is the historically the deadiest place in the world for the press, with more than eight unsolved cases of journalist murders in the year 1991. Some More Historical Facts Before Trivia: Don't just think about culture! But also Colombia's long history of conflict within the population and the government. Given the time the story took place, was it acceptable of the twins to kill Santiago? To be further explained in a separate presentation
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