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Haiti

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Alice Lee

on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Haiti

Haiti 1697 In French-controlled St Domingue, slaves were used to grow sugar, rum, coffee and cotton for over 100 years. At the end of the 18th century, over 500,000 people of western African origin were enslaved. Revolt In 1790 free mulatto planters demanded full rights under the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. A series of clashes between free men of color and whites began. In August 1791, slaves rose up in extremely violent revolt under Boukman, a voodoo priest. The famous Bois Caiman marked its beginning. Toussaint L'Ouverture Known as the "Father of Haiti", he was the brilliant strategist that led the slave forces. He fought alongside the Spanish and the British until France declared emancipation in February 1794. He then joined with the French because his ultimate goal was an end to slavery. He freed the slaves, ousted the French, British and Spanish, and administered justice. However, he also allowed white planters to start and forced ex-slaves to work on their old plantations, albeit with much better treatment. Treatment in the colony of St Domingue is notoriously cruel. He was betrayed and exiled to France. INDEPENDENCE Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared the independent nation of Haiti in 1804 But France did not recognize it until 1825, in exchange for a large indemnity of 150 million gold frances for damages caused during the revolt. It was not repaid fully until 1947, crippling the economy for over a century. COUP D'eTAS and despots Although Haiti got off to a shaky start, the Constitution of 1867 installed a peaceful, progressive government that lasted until 1911, when political unrest began again. There were six presidents from 1911 to 1915, all of whom were killed or exiled. U.S. Intervention The U.S. invaded Haiti in response to complaints from American bankers, to whom Haitians were heavily in debt. The occupation was self-interested and often brutal. They improved public health and education, but they also changed laws against the will of the Haitian people and forced peasants to build roads. Finally left in 1934:
Controlled Haitian external finances until 1947. papa doc and baby doc François Duvalier was elected in 1957 after decades of coups and disorder. His regime was one of the worst in modern history, leading to intellectual emigration, repression and intimidation. An estimated 30,000 Haitians were killed by the government. His son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, inherited in 1971. He ran a rampant kleptomancy, embezzling up to 80% of Haiti's international aid money. He was finally disposed in 1986 after Pope John Paul II sparked a revolt during a visit. aRISTiDE elected in 1990, overthrown in 1991 reinstated by the U.S. in 1994 Lost the presidency to Preval in 1996 FIRST peaceful transition of power between democratically elected presidents Took power again in 2000 in disputed elections Violence, human rights abuses, police brutality became common Overthrown in 2004 HAiti Now THe result of all this internal turmoil, foreign intervention and crippling debt where unemployment is 75%, illiteracy is high, and drug and weapons trafficking, robbery, prostitution, blackmail and kidnapping are often the best sources of employment. Is a country VODOu a mix of traditional West African beliefs and Roman Catholicism. 80% of Haiti is Catholic, but half the population practices vodou. Often falsely associated with Satanism, Vodou is characterized by a belief in Bondye: a distant Supreme Being, and lesser spirits known as loa. Emphasis is placed on family and community bonds ART Merengue a two-step most closely associated with the Dominican Republic, but popular in Haiti and all over the Caribbean. There are two popular myths of the origin of the merengue. 1 Slaves, because they were chained together, had to drag one leg in order to harvest to the beat of the drums. 2 A great hero of the Revolutionary war was welcomed home with a great celebration. Even though he had been wounded in one leg, he danced. Partners in Health
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