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AIDA - Level 2

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alex boulting

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of AIDA - Level 2

INTRODUCTION
1.
OVERVIEW
Course purpose
What is freediving?
What is AIDA?
COURSE PURPOSE
The AIDA 2* Freediver course is designed as a beginner course for recreational freedivers.

It is set up to teach you the basic skills and knowledge that you will need to freedive safely and effectively in swimming pool and open water environments.
WHAT IS FREEDIVING?
What does it mean to you?
Getting to know yourself
Recreational Freediving
Relaxation
Control the stress
Competitions and records
Peaceful silence
WHAT IS AIDA?
Association Internationale pour le Développement de l’Apnée
International Associationfor the Development of Apnea
Created in 1992 in Nice, south of France Freediving courses Freediving competitions
Recognition of freediving records
www.aida-international.org
FREEDIVING
2.
OVERVIEW
Within AIDA there are 8 freediving disciplines: 6 are competitive disciplines and 2 are for enjoyment and/or records.
The disciplines are:
DYNAMIC APNEA – DYN/DNF
Distance covered in one breath - horizontally
With fins (DYN)
Without fins (DNF)
Competition Discipline
- Static Apnea
- Dynamic Apnea with or without fins
- Constant Weight with or without fins
- Free Immersion
- Variable Weight & No Limits
DISCIPLINES
CONSTANT WEIGHT - CWT
Swim down and back up using the same amount of weight
With/without fins
Grab the rope only to turn
Competition Discipline
FREE IMMERSION - FIM
Pulling yourself down and back up a line, no fins
Good as a warm up for Constant
Weight to save your legs
Competition discipline
VARIABLE WEIGHT - VWT
Descend with weight or sled
Ascend without weights
Ascend swimming and/or pulling on the line
Not a competition discipline due to associated risk factors
Descend on a weighted sled
Ascend using an air filled lift bag or other device
Not a competition discipline due to associated risk factors
NO LIMIT - NLT
FREEDIVING DISCIPLINE
SUMMARY
Static Apnea
Dynamic Apnea with or without fins
Constant Weight with or without fins
Free Immersion
Variable Weight
No Limits
FREEDIVING
3.
OVERVIEW
Mask
Snorkel
Bi-Fins
Monofin
Wetsuit
Weight belt and weights
Freedivers use specialized equipment

What equipment do we use and how is it different from scuba or snorkelling equipment?
FREEDIVE MASKS
EQUIPMENT
FREEDIVING EQUIPMENT
SNORKEL
For your preparation breathing on the surface
To safety your buddy during dynamic
Rigid
With/without purge valve
WETSUIT
To keep you warm in static
Ideally made to measure, close fitting
Integrated hood
Usually long john or high trousers and separate jacket
No zips for minimum flush
Open cell neoprene for warmth and mobility
Can be fragile
Different thickness
FREEDIVING EQUIPMENT SUMMARY
Mask
Snorkel
Bi-fins
Monofin
Wetsuit
Weight belt and Weights
BI-FINS
Longer and more powerful than scuba fins
With full foot pocket, no booties
Different materials: plastic, fibreglass or carbon fibre
Different blade stiffness
Softer fins are better to learn the finning techniques
MONOFIN
Different technique
It takes time to learn
More powerful than bi-fins
Not as manoeuvrable
Different stiffness
Different materials
Not used during static
Used to stay neutral during dynamic
Worn on hips rather than waist to help deep breathing
Made from flexible rubber, so the belt stays on hips when stretched tight
Small, hydrodynamic weights
Quick release
Seals suit
Neck weight
WEIGHT BELT AND WEIGHTS
PHYSIOLOGY
4.
OVERVIEW
1. Respiratory system
2. Circulatory system
3. Mechanics of breathing
4. Breathing response (BR)
5. Hyperventilation (HV)
6. To safely prolong dives
7. Breathing techniques
8. Dry breathing exercises
Is made up of the nose, diaphragm, lungs and air passages
Air travels in through the nose or mouth, to the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and into the alveoli where gas exchanges between the lungs and blood take place
The blood takes on O2 and releases CO2 back to the lungs
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
AND BREATHING
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
MECHANICS OF BREATHING
Air enters the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is lower than the pressure outside the lungs. Air leaves the lungs when this mechanism is reversed
BREATHING RESPONSE (BR)
The BR manifests itself as an urge to breath.
If you hold your breath long enough you will experience this.
The BR is triggered by relatively high CO2 levels in the blood - not low O2 levels.
There is always a certain amount of CO2 in the blood.
The body tries to control this level by regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing.
When CO2 levels increase, we breathe more (e.g. running), and when CO2 levels decrease we breathe less (e.g. sleeping).
The heart pumps blood around the body and to and from the lungs
Oxygen
is carried by the
red blood cells,
bonded with haemoglobin
Carbon dioxide
is transported back to the lungs carried in
blood plasma
The main muscles involved in creating those pressure changes are the
diaphragm,
and the
intercostals
BREATHING RESPONSE (BR)
The urge to breathe can be experienced as contractions of the diaphragm or a muscular burning sensation in that area.
When this is felt, the body still has O2 available so you are able to continue holding your breath for some time.
Use the BR as a marker point to gauge your dives.
In the beginning, when it starts, slowly get ready to come up.
With time and practice you will be able to extend your ability to hold your breath, enduring the urge to breathe and the contractions discomfort.
HYPERVENTILATION (HV)
HV is described as over-breathing for a given state of activity.
HV does not help in storing more O2
HV lowers the level of CO2 in our blood
This delays the breathing response, until the CO2 will raise above its normal level
NORMAL BREATHING
HYPERVENTILATION (HV)
HYPERVENTILATION (HV)
Hyperventilation is dangerous
If the breathing response is delayed you can not effectively gauge your dive and can push it too far potentially having a LMC or BO without warning
Hyperventilation also accelerates the heart rate, increases metabolism, and lowers effective gas exchange in the blood. This reduces breath hold times
HYPERVENTILATION (HV)
Symptoms of hyperventilation includes:
euphoria, tingling in the extremities, light headedness, dizziness, numbness around the mouth, metallic taste, …
If you experience any of these symptoms, breathe normally and do not dive until they go away
Low volume,
smaller than scuba masks. This makes it easier to equalise
Flexible skirt,
so it can be compressed more without coming off
Clear lenses
enable your buddy to see your eyes for safety
TO SAFELY PROLONG DIVES
Train freediving regularly
This will build up comfort and self-awareness in the water, allowing time for your body to adapt.

Focus on relaxation during the preparation breathing, last breathing and dive
This will optimize O usage and minimize CO production delaying the urge to breathe in a safe way.
Do not hyperventilate
BREATHING TECHNIQUES
Preparation breathing:
1. Breathe from the diaphragm - belly breathing
2. Breathing is deep and slow
3. It is relaxed, calm and controlled
4. Exhales are (at least twice as) longer than inhales
5. No hyperventilation
Final breath:
Ensure your final breath is complete - full exhale followed by a full inhale
Recovery breathing:
Short passive exhales followed by quick full inhales (3 repetitions)
DRY BREATHING EXERCISES
Preparation breathing:
Take your pulses before you start and then at the end of your preparation => Slower.
Final breath:
Inhale slowly. Belly followed by chest.
Recovery breathing:
During 2 minutes increase your heartbeats with the help of some workout exercises. Hold your breath for 20 seconds. Then do the recovery breathing.
PHYSIOLOGY AND BREATHING SUMMARY
1. Respiratory system
2. Circulatory system
3. Mechanics of breathing
4. Breathing response (BR)
5. Hyperventilation (HV)
6. To safely prolong dives
7. Breathing techniques
8. Dry breathing exercises
DEPTH
5.
OVERVIEW
Boyle’s Law
Equalization
Equalization Techniques
Avoiding equalization problems
Pressure is the force with the most noticeable effect on the body when we descend into water
Pressure increases at approx 1 bar for every 10m of sea water
Boyle’s Law states that: “if temperature remains constant, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the absolute pressure”
EQUALIZATION
AND PRESSURE
BOYLE’S LAW
PHYSIOLOGY AND BREATHING SUMMARY
Boyle’s Law
Equalization
Techniques of equalization
Avoiding equalization problems
Equalize frequently and gently
Slow your descent if necessary
Never force an equalization
Do not dive with a cold or congestion
Avoid using decongestants
Relax on your dives
Tuck in your chin
Relax your head and neck
AVOIDING EQUALIZATION PROBLEMS
A diver’s body contains air spaces: Ears, sinuses, lungs, mask
You will need to equalise the pressure in the ears, sinuses and mask to descend comfortably
There is no need to equalise these air spaces on ascent
EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUES
Ears
Valsalva Manoeuvre
Frenzel Manoeuvre (desired technique)
Mask
Release the pinched nose when you feel the mask pressing in under increasing pressure.
Exhale lightly through the nose if needed
Sinuses
Your Sinuses should equalise automatically with the ears
EAR EQUALIZATION
VALSALVA MANOEUVER
FRENZEL MANOEUVER
FREEDIVING
6.
OVERVIEW
Importance of technique
Duck dive
Descent
Turn
Ascent
Surface and recovery
DUCK DIVE
TECHNIQUES
IMPORTANCE OF TECHNIQUE
FREEDIVING TECHNIQUE SUMMARY
Importance of technique
Duck dive
Descent
Turn
Ascent
Surface and recovery
During the ascent our aim is (as usual) to minimize the consumption of O

Starting from depth, fin kicks are stronger and have a big amplitude enabling you to ascend against your negative buoyancy

Approaching the point of neutral buoyancy our fin strokes gradually decrease in amplitude and stop completely the last meters of our dive.
ASCENT
DESCENT
FINNING TECHNIQUE
DUCK DIVE
EQUALIZATION PROBLEMS
TURN PROCEDURE
Near the end of the dive, extending your arm (the one with the lanyard) towards the dive line, letting your hand slide along it

When you want to stop your descent grab the dive line with your hand.

Allow your body to sink under negative buoyancy extending your arm

Give one pull on the dive line to start our ascent

Start fining
TURN PROCEDURE
A correct turn allows you to stop your descent and start your ascent with minimum effort

Any unnecessary movement at the maximum depth during a freedive can cause significant consumption of O
TURN
2
2
A freedive is not completed until you have taken proper recovery breaths after surfacing

Upon surfacing the freediver grabs on to the buoy or dive line when a platform is used

They then perform several (3-5) recovery breaths -passive exhales followed by deep full inhales
SURFACE AND RECOVERY
7.
http://freedivingsafety.org
BLACKOUT (BO)
SAFETY
PREVENTING BO AND LMC
After hyperventilation,
stress
is one of the main causes of BO. A stressed or panicked freediver will use much more O than a relaxed one
Combinations of stress, inexperience, poor technique and bad recovery breathing are the most common causes of BO/LMC in novice freedivers
IDENTIFYING A LMC
Typical signs are:
Loss of posture
Uncontrollable twitches
Facial distortion
Lack of focus in the eyes
Confusion
Mumbling
Trembling
Reduced responsiveness
Warning sign of possible close call – Cyanosis (blue lips and face)
BO RESCUE PROCEDURES
Get the freediver to the surface
Hold them so their airways are out of the water
Remove all facial equipment
Blow, Tap, Talk (BTT)
If they don’t start breathing within 10 seconds, give up to five rescue breaths
If no recovery, remove the diver from the water, start CPR and seek emergency medical assistance
The freediver should stop freediving for the day
Gently hold the freediver so his airways are out of the water
Remove their facial equipment if needed
Tell them to breathe
Check for any injuries (pool edge impact)
Advise him to stop diving for the rest of the day
LMC RESCUE PROCEDURES
Is the loss of consciousness caused by hypoxia towards the end of a breath-hold
During a dive, O2 is used until the point where there is not enough left for the brain to function normally
At this point the brain shuts down and the diver falls unconscious
After recovery from a BO, the freediver may not be aware it has happened
OVERVIEW
Loss of Motor Control (LMC)
Blackout (BO)
Preventing BO and LMC
Identifying a LMC
Identifying a BO
LMC rescue procedures
BO rescue procedures
LMC & BO - Safety precautions
Other factors to consider
Freediving and Scuba diving
A loss of motor control (LMC) is a hypoxic fit triggered by low oxygen levels (hypoxia)
An LMC occurs on the surface after a dive or static breath-hold
The freediver is often not aware he/she had an LMC
An LMC can be a series of uncontrollable muscle twitches and may be accompanied by confusion and/or a lack of responsiveness
An LMC usually lasts only a few seconds and may or may not result in a full blackout
LOSS OF MOTOR CONTROL (LMC)
PREVENTING BO AND LMC
Self awareness
and
experience
are the keys to prevent BOs and LMCs
This requires a
slow progression
approach, with
repetitions
before increasing depths and times
The freediver should gain enough experience so that they can recognize the symptoms of low O2 and end the dive before experiencing a BO
2
PREVENTING BO AND LMC
Other factors to consider:
Never hyperventilate before a dive
Do not dive if you are tired or unwell
Keep well hydrated
Warning Signs
What you can see!
None (HV)
Irregular kick
Unfocused or panicked eyes
Escaping air
Speeding up at end of a dive
Anything abnormal
IDENTIFYING A BLACKOUT
Warning Symptoms
What you can feel!
None (HV)
Ear ringing
Tunnel vision
Inability to think straight
Feeling of warmth
The dive starts to feel easier
Tingling sensation
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.


6.



7.
LMC & BO - SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Never, ever freedive alone!
Always practice and train with an experienced buddy
Learn and practice rescue techniques
Drop your weight belt at the first sign of trouble
Grab/hold of something as soon as you reach the surface
As a buddy, if you think you should act - ACT!
OTHER FACTORS TO CONSIDER
Those affect your breath-hold time and dynamic
Dehydration
Low Blood Sugar
Eating
Smoking
Decongestants
Fitness
Tiredness
Relaxation
Stress
Cold
FREEDIVING AND SCUBA DIVING
If combining, leave at least 12 hours after a scuba dive before freediving (or vice-versa) to avoid decompression sickness (or 24 hours after multiple dives)
If using a dive computer, wait until the no-fly time clears
SAFETY SUMMARY
1. Loss of Motor Control (LMC)
2. Blackout (BO)
3. Preventing BO and LMC
4. Identifying a LMC
5. Identifying a BO
6. LMC rescue procedures
7. BO rescue procedures
8. LMC & BO - Safety precautions
9. Other factors to consider
10. Freediving and Scuba diving
8.
If you have the chance to do your course sessions in the sea, in a confined water environment:
Pay attention to your surroundings
Do not touch anything
Do not harass marine life
Be careful not to damage coral with long fins
Make sure the site is left as you found it, or better!
Set a good example for others with your actions
STATIC APNEA SESSION
Breathing techniques
Relaxation
Breath holds
Contractions
Recovery breathing and position
Buddy procedures
Rescue practise
DYNAMIC APNEA SESSION
Proper weighting
Finning technique and body position
Breathing techniques
Recovery breathing
Safety with other pool users
Buddy procedures
Rescue practise
Never, ever freedive alone
Never push your limits
Relax and enjoy yourself!
RESPECTING
THE ENVIRONMENT
OPEN WATER DIVE SESSIONS
Breathing
Relaxation
Proper Weighting
Pull-downs - to practice slow movements, body positioning, equalizing
Duck dive
Body positioning
Finning technique
Rescue practice
IF YOU REMEMBER NOTHING ELSE, REMEMBER THIS...
Breath-hold, face down in the pool
Competition discipline
Mind game!
Good training for other disciplines
STATIC APNEA - STA
2
2
Developing good technique is an important factor for success in freediving

It enables you to start a dive and move underwater in the most efficient way, optimizing your O consumption

Utilizing good technique maximizes safety and enjoyment on dives

Technique is important for freedivers at every level
2
After taking your last breath remove the snorkel from your mouth

Bring your upper body to a right angle with the surface, bending at the waist and keeping your arms above your head

Pulling your arms back using a breast stroke your legs sink bellow the surface

Once your fins sink bellow the surface start fining
During your descent the goal is to get to depth with minimum effort and ensure easy equalization

Fining starts from the hip not the knee. Avoid the bicycle style kick

Equalize frequently before feeling any discomfort, using one arm for equalizing and leaving the other relaxed at your side

Stay relaxed and calm as you descend
Full transcript