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Journey Into Atomic Theory

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Timmie Shepherd

on 26 September 2014

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Transcript of Journey Into Atomic Theory

Aristotle was a Greek scientist and philosopher. He thought that there are four elements: Earth, Water, Air, and Fire. These roughly correspond to the 4 states of matter.
Rutherford and Moseley
Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist who created the Bohr atomic model. Building on the work of Planck and Rutherford, he developed the first complete atomic model. He described the atom as a positively charged nucleus with electrons orbiting around it. He also realized that the number of electrons determines the properties of an element.

The Greek Philosophers
These were important people who helped out with the atomic theory before it was cam up with later.
The bonus scientist- Marie Curie
She was a woman scientist who was appointed the Director of the Curie Laboratory in the Radium Institute of the University of Paris. She and her husband Pierre Curie, who was the Professor in the School of Physics when they met each other in 1894 and married each other the following year, were inspired by the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in 1896 when they researching and analyzing their experiments. They soon came upon the discovery of polonium and radium in 1898. That helped out the atomic theory since discovering new elements in the periodic table which are made of atoms. After that discovery, they were given huge recognition for their discovery. She was even awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911.

James Chadwick was an English physicist who proved the existence of the neutron. He discovered this neutral (not electrically charged) particle in 1932. The neutron was a major addition to Bohr’s original atomic model.

Atomic Theory Presentation
by Timmie, Sonam, Rhayven, and Tatyana

Henry Moseley was a British chemist who studied under Rutherford and developed the application of X-ray spectra to study atomic structure in 1914.
Ernest Rutherford was a chemists from New Zealand who helped pioneer nuclear physics. He discovered alpha and beta rays, set forth the laws of radioactive decay, and identified alpha particles as helium nuclei. He postulated the nuclear structure of the atom. Experiments done in his lab showed that when alpha particles are fired into gas atoms, a few are violently deflected, which implies a dense, positively charged central region containing most of the atomic mass.
What is the atomic theory?
According to the dictionary, the atomic theory is the theory of which anything made of matter is made up of small atomic particles called the atom. This theory was started by Democritus.But Dalton was the one who proposed the atomic theory.

He lived on the idea or philosophy that nothing could come from nothing, and everything is already in the world and it is just a matter of combination and recombination of eternal particles called atoms that make up the materials of life.
The size and shape of these solid objects were determined by the size and shape of the atomic bits
Also believed that atoms were the reasoning behind our senses
Experiment: he took a seashell and broke it in half and then broke the half in half and continued to break the seashell into halves until it was just a powder and he realized he could not break it anymore which created the thinking process of the atom(the unbreakable particle)

Sources for pictures
Thompson and Dalton
John Dalton was an English meteorologist and chemist. He was a pioneer in the development in modern atomic theory. His most influential work was his atomic theory in 1803.
1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
4) A chemical reaction is rearrangement of atoms.

Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson was a British physicist. In 1879 he discovered the electron through a series of experiment that were designed to study the nature of electric discharge in a high-vacuum cathode-ray tube. In 1904 Thomson suggested a model of the atom as a sphere of positive matter in which electrons are positioned by electrostatic forces. He tried to figure out how many electrons are in an atom from measurements of the scattering of light, X, beta, and gamma rays initiated the research trajectory along which his student Ernest Rutherford moved. His assistant, Francis Aston, improved Thompson's instrument and discovered isotopes—atoms of the same element with different atomic weights—in a large number of nonradioactive elements.
Robert A. Millikan
He was an assistant at the newly established Ryerson Laboratory at the University of Chicago at the time in 1896. He discovered and proved that the accurate determination of the charge carried by an electron was a constant for all electrons, which demonstrated the atomic structure of electricity in 1910. His studies of the Brownian movements in gases also put a finish to all of the opposition to the atomic and kinetic theories of matter. He also made studies on cosmic radiation.
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