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Bridge/Memory Controller& Expansion Bus Bridge

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Ceren Tığlı

on 28 December 2013

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Transcript of Bridge/Memory Controller& Expansion Bus Bridge

Bridges
Expansion Bus Bridge
Expansion Bus Bridge is a set of lines that transfer data and control information among Expansion Bus and PCI Bus.
Memory Controller
The memory controller is a digital circuit which manages the flow of data going to and from the main memory. It can be a separate chip or integrated into another chip, such as on the die(integrated circuit) of a microprocessor. This is also called a Memory Chip Controller (MCC).
Introduction to Computer
Architecture

Bridge
Memory Controller
Expansion Bus Bridge

Mahmut Bulut
Neslişah Efe
Ş.Ceren Tığlı

North Bridge
South Bridge

There two types of bridge
North Bridge
The northbridge or host bridge was one of the two chips in the core logic chipset on a PC motherboard.
The north bridge is an integrated circuit that is responsible for communications between the CPU interface, AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) and the memory.
South Bridge
The Southbridge is an integrated circuit on the motherboard that is responsible for the hard drive controller, I/O controller and integrated hardware such as sound card, video card if present on the motherboard, USB, PCI,ISA, IDE, BIOS, and Ethernet.
Memory Controller
Memory controllers varies according to the type of memory used.

Different types of ram are the controllers of their own.
SDRAM controller
DRAM controller


What Makes the Memory Controller Work

Multiplexers and demultiplexers make the reading and writing to DRAM possible. They select the correct row and column address from the memory unit.

The memory controller uses a bus to communicate with the memory cell.
Benefits and Purpose of the Memory Controller
Isolate an application or a group of applications.
Virtualization solutions can control the amount of memory they want to assign to a virtual machine instance.
A CD/DVD burner could control the amount of memory used by the rest of the system to ensure that burning does not fail due to lack of available memory.
By sending a current through the entire device, the DRAM has the system's most up to date data.

Difference between Southbridge and Northbridge:

North and south bridge refer to the data channels to the CPU, memory and Hard disk data goes to CPU using the Northbridge. And the mouse, keyboard, CD ROM external data flows to the CPU using the Southbridge.
The fast end of the hub is the Northbridge, containing the graphics and memory controller connecting to the system bus. The slower end of the hub is the Southbridge, containing the I/O controller hub.
The memory controller handles of 12 memory banks shared between a general purpose chip-select machine,3 user-programmable machines,and an SDRAM machine.
Definition of Expansion Bus
An expansion bus is a computer bus which moves information between the internal hardware of a computer system (including the CPU and RAM) and peripheral devices. It is a collection of wires and protocols that allows for the expansion of a computer.
Expansion Bus Types
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture
EISA - Extended Industry Standard Architecture
MCA - Micro Channel Architecture
VESA - Video Electronics Standards Association
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card Industry Association (Also called PC bus)
AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port
SCSI - Small Computer Systems Interface.
Operating of Expansion Bus Bridge
The primary function of a bridge chip is to map the address space of one bus into the address space of another bus, so that every bus master in a system sees the same address map. PCI provides three independent physical-address spaces: memory, I/O, and configuration. Configuration space is unique to PCI. A host bridge must support the minimum set of configuration-space registers, which allow for plug-and-play operation.
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