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The Jet Engine
Transcript of The Jet Engine
Steam Power - usually associated with 18th/19th century trains or riverboats. Heat from a burned substance is used to create pressure inside of a container, which in turn is used to create a force to drive pistons or other mechanical extensions.
-Neither technology provides the power necessary to run a jet engine, but both are crucial in the design of modern day aircraft propulsion.
The need for jet powered aircraft arose primarily at the end of the second world war, and it makes sense that the first engines were built around the 1940s... But in technical terms the first turbine-engine concept was developed between the years of 1-100 C.E. Bibliography Widely produced jet engines developed towards the end of World War II following the invention of an air compression engine known as a Turbo-jet. Their creation was based on an engineering need for a more powerful engine, as the piston-driven propeller aircraft of the time were having their speed limited by their propulsion. Because of the momentum generated by jet engines, we can travel to any location on Earth on a whim. There are approximately 10 million flights across the US every year, the vast majority of these flights rely on jet engines for propulsion. Standards in Modern Aviation Safety Materials The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is in charge of safety standards across the board in aircraft designs.
And as expected, non-USA countries have similar agencies dedicated to aircraft safety:
Civil Aviation Branch - Canada. Civil Aviation Authority - UK. Civil Aviation Administration - China
A few of the standards enforced on jet engines are:
thrust Not generally thought of as a standard, but Jet Engines are designed with a specific parameters that must be met on each on every plane. This is 100% reliant on the materials used in the construction. According to Robert Schafrik "a widely used indicator of the technological state of propulsion is the ratio of engine output thrust to engine weight... Whittle's original 840 pound engine generated a thrust/weight ratio of approximately 1.5:1 while today's commercial jets have thrust/weight of 6-8:1" (Gas Turbine Materials, pg 34) This ties into Materials Science in multiple aspects, as modern aviation companies expect lightweight alloys in the construction of their aviation turbines. They also expect standardized fuel and energy input/output, as designed by chemical or petrol engineers. The Jet Engine has fundamentally changed the way we move commerce around the globe by providing faster, safer, more powerful transportation than anything previously developed. Going back a bit Two engineers - Hans Von Ohain and Frank Whittle - were commissioned by their governments to implement a new power source for aircraft which would improve speed dramatically, and provide an upper hand in the skies over Europe. The two designs were almost identical, and both militaries implemented the technology before the war was over. Picture Retrieved from NASA: Brief History of Rockets
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/TRC/Rockets/history_of_rockets.html Invented by a man named Hero in the ancient city of Alexandria, a device known as an aeolipile used steam to rotate a simple axial pressure chamber. The device generated thrust through air compression (steam) and the laws of rocketry (matter expelled rapidly from a nozzle will accelerate associated objects in the opposite direction) Not much is known about the implementation of this device, but it does represent the first use of jet engine principles Fireworks and Universal Laws When Steam Power Met Fireworks... Originally designed for war, Chinese fireworks (rockets) played a crucial role in the development of the jet engine. Gunpowder provided a highly energetic source of fuel for early propulsion, and became the standard method of launching projectiles The expulsion of matter produced a huge amount of momentum, and allowed for fast, direct flight Using knowledge of gunpowder, rocketry, and other physics related phenomena, Newton would eventually develop the universal laws of motion explaining how and why future propulsion might work. 30 N 30 N Evolving Aircraft Jet engines are essentially rockets (expelling matter to create movement). The main difference lies in the storage of propellant vs. constant compression. The principles of steam power and rocketry can be intertwined to describe a relatively modern jet engine Prerequisite Technologies A small floating vessel sucks in cold water, and a high temperature heater warms (compresses) the liquid. With water being sucked in from the front, the only exit is the rear of the craft, and due to the higher energy of the liquid, the craft expels the water rapidly and in turn has more momentum. Present Day Controversies Jet engines produce acoustics of about 140-145 decibels, which is a level guaranteed to cause hearing loss even when exposure is short term.
For comparison, the loudest noise recorded on Earth was a meteor impact estimated to be approximately 300 decibels (implying that jet engines operate at about 50% of the noise threshold on our planet).
If aircraft routes and airport locations are chosen without the decibel limits in mind, flyover areas such as neighborhoods/schools/theaters etc. have the right to complain to the department of transportation. Aircraft flight plans are often altered to address the issue.
They’re loud, but they're not as loud as they used to be. There have been multiple innovations in the noise reduction field, one of the earliest involving slots to allow for pressurized air to escape (James McBride 1969), and some of the latest involving the shape of the engine itself Noise Jets encourage globalization, and move goods from point A to point B with ease. Our economy, infrastructure and daily lives rely on this technology, even if the impact is not directly felt. The generator for this whole apparatus is a type of internal combustion engine known as a Gas Turbine. The turbine (essentially) spins the intake which sucks in the air to be compressed and shot out the rear. The two fighter planes actually used in the war: The British Meteor and the German Swallow (ME 262) A more technical explanation: Air and fuel are mixed in the combustion chamber and ignited. The resulting high density products are launched from the rear nozzle and produce a rocket-like force in the forward direction. The exhaust exiting the engine rotates the rear fans, which in turn powers the air intake fans to provide more air for combustion. If World War II had not occurred the jet engine would probably still exist, but the development time might be drastically different. Jet Fuel *A Joule [(N)(m)] is the approximately the amount of energy it takes to lift 100g (.22 pounds - a small hamburger patty) of mass 1 meter into the air. A Megajoule (MJ) is 10^6 times that energy. Jet fuel comes in a variety of blends which offer different energy to mass (weight) ratios.This ratio translates directly into efficiency as the aircraft must carry both the fuel and its passengers into the sky.
For this presentation, it seems appropriate to look at the standardized energy value of commercial jet fuel. As seen in the graph, aviation fuel is relatively close in (potential) energy to automobile fuel. The reason aircraft can go faster and farther is due to turbine engine efficiency - a jet engine simply pulls in air, compresses and expels the same air. Automobile engines use the same energy to move multiple parts, dropping in efficiency at every point of friction and heat transfer. The National Aviation and Science Administration and the FAA began oversight of aerial vehicles in 1958, about the time commercial companies were allowed to develop. Aerial transportation of goods and people took off in the late 50s/early 60s and our infrastructure adapted to allow for the new technology to thrive.
The Cold War is generally known for the Space Race, but there was also a huge advancement in the variety and efficiency of jet aircraft. The U2 is famous for being shot down, but the plane itself was a cool blend of high altitude jet engine technology. Many iterations of the jet engine evolved - and over time the design of the engine became more efficient, quieter, and safer to operate.
World militaries were permanently affected by this technology as the Korean War, Vietnam, and Desert Storm all relied on increasingly versatile jet aircraft.
Between the time of the Comet's flight and present day, the transition from new technology to everyday sight occurred. The jetliner became a ubiquitous image silhouetted against the blue sky - symbolizing power, technical know-how, safety, and nationalism. The engine (or more the planes powered by the engine) also found a way into our culture.
It can be argued that the jet turbine provided the means for terrorists to attack us on September 11, 2001 - a religiously and politically motivated attack; but I would still file said attack under the category of war.
The Jet Engine has impacted us politically by changing the way we move people, the methods we use to fight wars and the standards in safety which we have created for global transportation.
It has drastically affected the appearance of towns and cities around the globe, creating a new hub of commerce (the airport) and many of the problems that arise with the movement of large numbers of people and goods from one place to another.
The jet has become so commonplace that we now simply throw away old designs. Leftover parts can be seen in aircraft scrapyards (also known as boneyards) at various locations around the globe. We have integrated the jet engine technology into our society, and will likely rely on it for generations to come.
http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk/age16-19/Mechanics/Dynamics/text/Energy_density_of_fuels/index.html Development Details Farley The De Havilland Comet ... and soon discovered a myriad of problems -First Civilian Airliner disaster March 1953 -- 11 killed
- Some of the aircraft failed to generate the necessary lift for flight while taxiing.
-Multiple aircraft experienced in-flight break-ups due to metal fatigue
-13 fatal crashes -- 400+ people killed
Weak metal around the windows due to metal fatigue Modern Day Commons.wikimedia.org www.last.fm Power and Range http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35.html Cruising Altitude “Airplane Timeline” National Academy of Engineering - Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. April 2013. http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3728
Bellis, Mary. “Hans Von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle” About.com (2013) http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bljetengine.htm
Benson, Tom "Brief History of Rockets" Glenn Research Center (February 12, 2010) http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/TRC/Rockets/history_of_rockets.html (Accessed February 12 2013).
Benson, Tom. “Newton’s Laws of Motion” Glenn Research Center (September 10, 2010) http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/newton.html
Borden, Norman E. Jet Engine Fundamentals New York: Hayden Book Company Inc. 1970
Charles Harvard Gibbs-Smith. “The Aero plane: An Historical Survey of Its Origins and Development” 1960, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Cumpsty, Nicholas. Jet Propulsion: A simple guide to the aerodynamic and thermodynamic design and performance of jet engines, Cambridge: University Press, 2003.
Crosby, Dave Et Al. 2013. “How to Practice Airplane Etiquette.” WikiHow. (Accessed March 7 2013). http://www.wikihow.com/Practice-Airplane-Etiquette.
Environmental Protection Agency. “Stationary Gas Turbines” Emissions Factors & AP 42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, December 31, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch03/ Accessed February 20, 2013.
“Evaluation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Subsonic Commercial Jet Aircraft” Environmental Protection Agency, April 1999. Accessed April 4, 2013. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/nonroad/aviation/r99013.pdf
Evelyn Gofman, Glenn Elert. “Energy Density of Aviation Fuel” The Physics Factbook, 2003. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2003/EvelynGofman.shtml
“Federal Aviation Administration: Aircraft” Last Modified (February 12, 2013) http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/
Gibbs, Keith. “Energy density of fuels” School Physics: Dynamics. 2013 http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk/age16-19/Mechanics/Dynamics/text/Energy_density_of_fuels/index.html
Goods, Daniel E, 2005. Revelations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Leonardo 38, no. 5 (October, 2005) 377-381. Academic Search Premier, EBSCO host (Accessed Feb 8, 2013).
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H.E. von Gierke, Horace O. Patrick, W.J. Gannon, and R.G. Hansen. “Turbo-Jet Engine Noise” Acoustical Society of America, 1952 http://asadl.org/jasa/resource/1/jasman/v24/i1/p116_s5?bypassSSO=1 Accessed February 20, 2013.
“Henri Marie Coanda” ALLSTAR Network – National Aeronautics and Space Administration. March, 2004. http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/coanda.htm
“How Products are made – The Jet Engine” Advameg Inc. 2013. Accessed April 4, 2013. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Jet-Engine.html
Knight, Helen. 2012. "Jets and blades." New Scientist 216, no. 2889: 2. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 8, 2013).
Nasaglenn “Quieter Jet Engines.” Uploaded April 6, 2009. (Accessed May 10, 2013).
Nuhum, Andrew. Eyewitness Flight New York: Dorling Kindersley 2011.
Patrício, Pedro, and José M. Tavares. 2010. "Simple thermodynamics of jet engines." American Journal Of Physics 78, no. 8: 809-814. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 7, 2013).
Schafrik, Robert, and Robert Sprague. 2004. "SAGA OF GAS TURBINE MATERIALS PART I." Advanced Materials & Processes 162, no. 3: 33-36. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2013).
Stoller, Gary. “Concern grows over pollution from jets.” USA TODAY, December 19, 2006. Accessed February 20, 2013. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/biztravel/2006-12-18-jet-pollution-usat_x.htm
"The Aircraft Museum" Aerospaceweb.org- De Havilland Comet. http://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/jetliner/comet/
“The Future of Aviation” Jets through 1945. http://tanks45.tripod.com/Jets45/Index.htm
“The History of Jet Fuel” BP. Accessed April 4, 2013. http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=4503664&contentId=57733
UPS Public Relations “Worldwide Facts” Accessed May 10, 2013 http://www.ups.com/content/us/en/about/facts/worldwide.html And that's why they're called jet-skis. Retrieved from http://www.jetski.com/article.cfm?id=782 Quieter Jet Engines Environmental Safety But none of this would have been possible without... Earth's First Commercial Jetliner Jet engines are technically known as gas turbine engines because they rely on fossil fuel to operate. -The engines burn and expel hydrocarbons, and a whole mess of pollutants can be found in their operation.
-Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur oxides are emitted every flight, and because of the proximity of aircraft to the upper atmosphere scientists have speculated that the turbine emissions could affect the climate more immediately than pollutants found near the ground.
-The FAA is constantly revising emissions standards, but jets will continue to produce combustion byproducts until a cleaner, similar-efficiency energy source is found. http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/emissions/emissions6.jpg -Brought about by early commercial aircraft and controversy surrounding mass air-transit Movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ohain_USAF_He_178_page61.jpg Fun Fact: Propellers can only spin up to the speed of sound, at which point air resistance prevents additional speed. http://www.clipart.dk.co.uk/1170/subject/Physics/Wooden_propeller http://airandspace.si.edu/collections/artifact.cfm?id=A19500082000 Whittle's Design on Display at the Smithsonian (BOI) The Boise Airport - A visible indicator of infrastructure changes and a hub of commerce in the city Cleared for Takeoff HE 178 http://www.earlyaviators.com/ecoanda1.htm Coanda's Plane Frank Whittle Hans Von Ohain http://www.aircraftenginedesign.com/custom.html3.html http://www.thelivingmoon.com/47brotherthebig/03files/Part_001.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/111761/Frank-Whittle The idea of using a jet engine emerged shortly after the appearance of the aeroplane. The first patent for a ramjet engine (the most basic form of a jet engine) was issued in 1908/1913 to a Frenchman named Rene Lorin. Another Frenchman named Maxime Guillaume filed the patent for a more modern design (an axial flow engine) in 1921. Much like today, both patents were ignored and inventors went to work on practical applications of the intellectual property. Henri Coanda The earliest (and most disputed) prototype claim comes from a Romanian named Henri Coandă – a professor who built and displayed an aircraft in 1910 that utilized a “turbo-propulseur" (a compressor in line with a fan) to create thrust. Unfortunately his plane crashed on its first flight and burned up in a fire, with no witnesses present to confirm or deny the occurrence of the flight.
There is still a debate within the aerospace community as to whether or not he deserves credit for jet propulsion technology. More often, Frank Whittle’s 1937 design for the Royal Air Force (previous slide) is considered the first working prototype, while Ohain's Heinkel 178 is given the designation of first turbojet aircraft to fly (August 1939- just before the start of WWII). Thanks to high efficiency engines and fuel, Jets have incredible range and lift capabilities - ideal attributes for a transportation medium. This trait is utilized by both the military and civilian transportation companies. Approximately 14% (2.3 million parcels) of the daily volume of cargo moved by UPS is accomplished by aircraft. Data on military movement is more difficult to find, but an ideal visual example can be seen in the C-5 Galaxy - with a maximum payload (carry weight) of 180,000 pounds. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:C5_AMC_loading_semi.jpg Fun Fact: Windows in modern aircraft are oval in shape because the rectangular windows used in the comet caused airframe stress
Average Citizens first took to the skies on January 22, 1952 What a Comet should look like What a Comet should not look like The Comet 1 was pulled from service roughly one year after its maiden voyage, and is generally not regarded as a reliable craft -- but our knowledge of commercial aviation today relies heavily on the lessons learned. This plane represented the first step in commercialization of the aerospace industry, and created the need for regulatory agencies to oversee air travel.
Structural, material and aerodynamic knowledge increased tremendously during the flights of the Comet, and though it killed multiple people - perhaps because it killed multiple people - our transportation standards today are higher than ever before. explosion containment
software/hardware requirements fuel containment
electrical safety These standards allow for hundreds of smooth, reliable flights between maintenance and eventual replacement of the engines. Aviation Fuel is created in a process similar to gasoline. There are various pollutants produced in the extraction and refining processes, and higher demand for the fuel results in higher quantities of pollutants. Fuel leaks can damage property if not contained properly and there has been research which suggests that prolonged interaction with jet fuel can lead to cancer.
Jet Fuel http://www.amazon.com/ The jet engine has created an entire branch of engineering where before there was none, and it will continue to change society for the positive and the negative, depending on how the technology is applied. Years of development in the fields of safety, propulsion, structure and materials science have given us the ability to fly, and as a result the transportation spectrum has been permanently altered. 1960 - Present www.wired.com Cultural Influence Military Influence http://www.flightradar24.com/ Mildly Interesting You can see all the commercial planes currently flying in the USA on this Air Traffic site Technical development continues on Jet Powered Aircraft, as the world advances into the 21st Century. Pictured Below: "Spike" The jet-powered drone. Today, it’s hard to imagine a sky where jets are not floating around as though they were on a giant blue screen saver. Approximately 2 million passengers travel by plane in the United States every day, zigzagging across the country with only minor issues. Amazon.com is a prime example of the jet engine interacting with the internet, and the globalization which jet powered aircraft have encouraged. http://air-attack.com/images/single/874/Two-F-22-Raptors-and-a-B-2-Spirit-bomber-fly-in-formation-over-the-Pacific-Ocean.html www.aerospaceweb.org http://www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/lab/8803/fcometcr.htm www.tech.plym.ac.uk http://fsdemais.blogspot.com/2010/04/skyunlimited-me262-fs2004.html http://www.aviationmuseum.com.au/aircraft_colection/meteor/