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Contributions of South and West Asia to Civilizations

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Katrina Gamba

on 23 May 2017

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Transcript of Contributions of South and West Asia to Civilizations

Contributions of South and West Asia to Civilizations
Kate Amoranto, Corrine Bugayong, Katrina Gamba, Georgina Mesina
Indian Literature is believed to be the oldest in the world.
Indian Literature is classified into Shruti literature and the Smriti Literature.

In the Field Literature
Shruti Literature is concerned with the "Revealed or the heard"
Shruti Literature
Palaces and houses of the wealthy were described to be decorated with wall paintings.
In the field of Painting
Indian architecture began with the Harappan civilization. The Harappan "Great Baths" and Urban planning skills proved them to be skilled in construction while the stone images of their gods and seals reveal their artistry.
Indian Sculpture and Architecture
Smriti Literature
Smriti is concerned with "That which is remembered"
This includes Guiding principle for beliefs, moral obligations, social codes, and customs
South Asian Contributions to Civilization
Arjuna's Penance is known as one of the biggest stone carvvings in the world
Dance and Music
The word Dance among Indians invokes images of Nataraja as the Indian God Shiva is described.
India has numerous classical dance style. Natyashastra is the oldest from which all the other Indian classical dance styles are derived.
Indian Instruments
Tambura
Sarod
Tabla
Satar
The story of the Indian dance-dramas has to be hold through actions.
Hence, Indian Dances include intricate forms of facial expressions, the movements of hands
Their dances also mock up various moods like anger, envy, greed, Lust etc.
Moreover, perfect expressions of these feelings made by the subtle movement.
Theology and worship are also integrated in Indian dances were usually performed during religious
The development of sports has been particularly emphasized among Asian countries to enhance national prestige.
Sports have been particularly become very pupular.
Asians have competed in Asian games and the World Olympics
The history of sports dates back to Vedic era.
In the field of Sports
Vedic era- was period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism were composed.
The origin and development of these sports activities were closely related to work, defense, and entertainment of the time
Traces the earliest sports activities such us hunting,swimming,boating,archery,horse riding,wrestling and fishing were seen from ancient bronzeware and paintings
Most of these games and sports were narrated in the famous epic of Mahabharata written in 800 BCE to 1000 BCE

Chess
The game has been known in India by the name Chatur-Anga, which has four angas or member of an army to be elephants, horses, chariots, and foot soldier
Checkmate- evidently from Shan Mat which means "the king is dead" other terms include Astapada which means eight steps and used to describe the eight step squares that the modern chess has.

Playing Cards
Known as the Kridapatras
Popular card game also originated in Ancient India.
Game is recorded to be one of the favorite partimes of royalty and nobility of Indian Royal Court
According to Abu Fazal the game of cards was invented by Sags who took the number 12 the basis and made a set of 12 cards.
Every king had 11 followers, thus a pack had 144 cards. Later, the Mughals retained the 12 sets having 96 cards
Cards were painted with themes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata
These were hand-made and painted in the traditional style
Cards were played by members of all strata of society, different cards with different styles are now found

Martial Arts
Called Kalaripayate
This art travelled from India to other countries along with the Buddhist monks
Buddhist monks traveled barefoot and unarmed, they accepted this art as an alternative to violence
They found this technique necessary as they were exposed to dangers from bandits and fanatic from other religions
Buddhist monks however, tempered the originally violent nature of kalaripayate

Martial Arts
This is a reflection of Buddhist attitude towards life because the meditation use with the practice of the martial arts that deeply intervenes in its practice
This is sought to be kept as a purpose of protecting the weak
As Buddhist monks traveled these martial arts were transmitted to China, Korea, and Japan

West Asian Contributions to Civilizations
West Asian Contributions to civilization
Civilization- the stage of human social development and organization which is considered most advanced.

Arab contributions to human civilizations were shaped and formed by numerous ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Byzantine, Canaanite and Egyptian.
Arabs have given us great contributions these includes:

RELIGION
WRITING
GOVERNMENT AND LAWS
MUSIC
MATHEMATICS

ARCHITECTURE
MEDICINE
HORTICULTURE
CRAFTS
LANGUAGE AND POETRY


Religion
- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
came from the Arabs
-The Arabs introduced laws such as:
The Law of Hammurabi and The Ulpian
and Papinian laws from the Phoenicians

Government and Laws
Writing
- The great Phonetic Alphabet came from the Arabs
M
U
S
I
C
-Arabian music was composed of poetry put to music with refined sequences and rhythm.
-Extemporaneous poetry was perfected into musical expression and was used in Arab weddings and other occasions.

Mathematics
1. The Arabic numeral and the Arab zero provided new solutions for complex mathematical problem.

2. The Arabic decimal system simplified a course in Science.

3. Alegbra also came from the Arabs who made advances in trigonometry.

Algebraic computations ensure just land divisions in the laws of inheritance.

Architecture
He purpose of Arab architectures was to glorify Islam.
Arab architects devoted their skills to the building of mosques and mausoleums.

The Roman's Horseshoe Arch
Great Umayad Mosque in Damascus in Syria
Dome of the rock in Jerusalem in Israel
Astronomy
The astrolabe was enhanced by the Arabs with religion in kind.
The astrolabe was used by the Arabs to:
1. To record the exact time of surises and sunsets
2. To chart the period for fasting
3. To chart the time for praying

The Arabs were able to chart the zodiacand to define the length of a degree.

The knowledge of distances between longitude and latitude.

Further explorations fave them the ability to know the comparative speeds of sound and light

Medicine
It was the arabs who pioneered and improved the therapeutic arts of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.

Al-Razi
-he was the first to ascertain smallpox and measles and allied these diseases with human infection.
-he was considered an authority on infection.
-he came up with the invention of mercurial ointment and the use of animal gut for sutures or stiches.
-Al-Razi’s volumes of medical research were used in Europe until the 16th century.

Was considered in Europe as the greatest writer of medicine during Middle Ages.
he pioneered the study of mental health and is presently considered as the forerunner of psychotherapists.
Ibn Sina/ Avicenna
Ibn al-Nafis

he discovered the principles of pulmonary circulation
The Arab got to use herbal medicines:

These herbal medicines, which were extensively used in the Middle East also found their way from the Arab pharmacies to European tables.

Horticulture
the art or practice of garden cultivation and management.

Arabian horticulture gave rise to the production of different products in Europe.
They dedicated much of their life in researches related to botany.
They discovered the method of grafting, soil conditioning, and the curing of diseased vines and trees.

The Arabs were also the ones responsible for the wine
industries in Europe.
The production of perfumes from fragrant flowers
and herbs also came from the Arabs.
The aromatic scented fountains and gardens nd rose
gardens with different colors were also a creative invention
of the Arabs.
Arabs from Syria and Phoenicia introduced cosmetics.

Crafts
The Arabs raised small scale crafts to perfection, these small scale crafts are made of glasswares, ceramics and textile weaves.
Arab crafts are usually shown on wall coverings
Syrian glasses and crystals were in great demand in Renaissance Europe.
Arab linens were made of Muslim cotton and Shiraz wool became a good quality for Europeans
Language and Literature
Because of the rich and pilant characteristics of the Arab language, Arabian poetry, literature and drama were remembered.
Numerous Greek and Roman classics were translated to arabic language.
A Thousand and One Nights and Omar Khayyam’s Rubaiyat were the most loved and read Arabian literatures.

IMPORTANCE
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