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The Primacy of Caring

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Whitney Hinrichs

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of The Primacy of Caring

Strengths of the Theory
The Primacy of Caring
Whitney Hinrichs
Jennifer Campbell

Background Info.
Patricia Benner:
* BA in nursing at Pasadena and Point Loma
* MS at UC San Francisco and PhD from UC Berkley
* Conducted research through the Universities.
Today's Presentation
Patient Paradigm
Health Paradigm
Weaknesses of the Theory
Central Focus
Background Information
Central Focus
Definition of Caring
Strengths and Weaknesses
Definition of Caring
Environment Paradigm
Caring is primacy
Understanding is the central focus
Understanding is a great gift because it
"moves back the walls of isolation and suff-
ering created by a disease." (p.11)
Understanding can be therapeutic or healing
Understand the patient's lived
Judith Wrubel:
* Conducted research with Patricia
Benner at UC San Francisco and
continues to do medical research
Caring is Primacy
"Caring is a word for being connected and ha-
ving things matter; it fuses thought, feeling,
and action- knowing and being." (p.1)
Sets up possibility of giving help and
receiving help- a connection
Caring involves expressive actions, recognizing
a patient as unique and noticing subtle signs.
Patients do not experience symptoms
that can be mapped empirically onto a
medically diagnosed syndrome; the patient
just wants to be understood.
The patient is viewed as a whole and
does not belong to a category.
Nurse Paradigm
The nurse expresses caring by knowing,
being with, doing for, enabling, and maintaining
the belief in the patient (p.5)
Nursing care must be instrumental and
The moral art of nursing must guide it's
science and technology aspects.
The health of the patient focuses on using
caring as a method of healing rather than
just medication or therapy.
Identifying stressors is important for devel-
oping individulized coping mechanisms.
Health is not just a set of anatomical vari-
ables, but is part of a more broad social and
mental world.
A patinet's lived experiences and
interactions with the nurse create
either a positive or negative environment.

This relationship creates the environment
and is reciprocal.
The theory does a great job on elaborating
how nursing can truly be an art and that it
is not all about giving IVs and charts.

Theory provides specific case studies and
research exhibiting the effects of caring as
This art of caring may seem unattain-
able to new nurses because much of it
is based on experience.
If caring is truly primary, it may get
in the way of the empirical aspect of
nursing because of caring too much or
developing too close of a relationship.
Johnson, W. (n.d.). Benner and Wrubel's Nursing Theory. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_6315001_benner-wrubel_s-nursing-theory.html

Benner, P. E., & Wrubel, J. (1989). The primacy of caring: Stress and coping in health and illness. Menlo Park, Calif: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co
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