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Honors - Imperialism (Chapters 27 and 28)
Transcript of Honors - Imperialism (Chapters 27 and 28)
Philippines and Puerto Rico did not enjoy all American rights Chapters 27 & 28: US Becomes a World Power President McKinley also set up a military government on this island.
The United States governed Puerto Rico as a territory.
Foraker Act of 1900 established that the U.S. would appoint a governor and upper house of legislature. Puerto Rican voters elected the lower house.
A 1917 law granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and ability to elect all legislative representatives. Puerto Rico Spain gave up all claims to Cuba.
The United States gained territory in Puerto Rico and Guam*
Spain turned over the Philippines for $20 million (Manila wasn't taken until one day after the armistice was signed)
Territorial gains strengthened the military and economic position of the United States. José Marti, Cuban revolutionary, moved to the US in 1878 – fought for Cuban independence through newspaper articles and poetry
Marti returned to Cuba to participate in a revolt but was killed, becoming a martyr
Spanish military used ruthless tactics to suppress the revolt, further angering Cubans and swaying American sentiment to the side of the rebels
Although public opinion supported and recognized the Cuban rebels, President Cleveland refused to take action Problems in Cuba Security
Great White Fleet
Mahan believed control of the seas was KEY to world dominance
Protect foreign interests
Social Darwinism Economy
Investments lead to political influence = Banana Republics Why should the US expand? “The sun never sets on the British Empire” Political Cartoon – due tomorrow! Economic
Need for natural resources to help growth of industry – Industrial Revolution
New markets to sell overproduction of goods
Rivals fought for land = power
Germany, France and Britain Factors Leading to Imperialism The Roosevelt Corollary
The United States pledged to use force to prevent European countries from seizing Dominican territory.
The United States took control of collecting Dominican customs duties.
The Corollary was issued without seeking approval from any Latin American nation.
The Roosevelt Corollary succeeded in bringing more stability to the region. The Roosevelt Corollary
The Monroe Doctrine, proclaimed in 1823, declared the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European nations.
After the Spanish-American War, presidents backed up the Monroe Doctrine with military strength.
Roosevelt Corollary was designed to prevent European powers from intervening in Latin American affairs...even if it involved the European powers
the US became the "policemen" of the Western Hemisphere The Roosevelt Corollary Spanish-American war emphasized the need for a canal through Central America
a Canal would make it easier to protect newly acquired Pacific territories
The United States bought the rights to build the canal from the French in 1902, but negotiations with the Colombians were not approved by the Colombian and US Senate Panama Canal Platt Amendment
limited Cuba’s ability to sign treaties with other nations
gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs
establish military bases.
made Cuba a U.S. protectorate – a country under the control and protection of another country. Cuban-American Affairs Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had already been fighting Spain and were hoping to gain independence. The War in the Philippines U.S. War Department was unprepared for war in Cuba The War in Cuba sensational stories with the purpose of selling a product
William R. Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, newspaper tycoons, published reports that caused the American people to believe that conditions in Cuba were worse than they actually were
"You furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war" ~William Randolph Hearst
Jingoism Yellow Journalism A quick victory in the Spanish-American War gave the United States a new role as a world power. The Spanish-American War Many Chinese rejected the western influences
"Boxers" killed over 200 missionaries and foreigners were killed
18,000 foreign soldiers arrived to calm the situation and China was charged for damages and expenses Boxer Rebellion European powers gained spheres of influence in China.
The United States feared it would be shut out of the valuable China trade.
Sec. of State John Hay establishes an Open Door policy giving all equal rights to China. Spheres of Influence Hawaii became a US territory in 1898 King Kalakaua negotiated a treaty that made Hawaiian sugar cheap to import to the United States - McKinley tariff raised the price on Hawaiian goods
Sugar planters overthrew Queen Liliuokalani with the help of the U.S. marines
Sugar tycoon Sanford Dole became president of the Republic of Hawaii. ideally located for coaling stations and bases for ships trading between the U.S. and Asia
American missionaries and others came to Hawaii and raised crops, particularly sugarcane
1887 US acquired Pearl Harbor as a naval base
tariffs on Hawaiian products leads to the annexation HAWAII Growth of America
Enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine (Venezuela)
Alaska (Seward's Folly)
Pacific Islands = refueling and repair stations
Japan -- Commodore Perry
China Open Door -- China US Imperialism Beginning of modern global economy Nations Compete An increase in trade had brought about the rise of large navies to protect trading interests -- needed strategically placed bases for refueling and repairs.
Social Darwinism justified European expansion into Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Nations Compete The Industrial Revolution increased wealth in many nations, causing them to look elsewhere for markets and opportunities for investment. President Taft promoted U.S. interests in other countries through dollar diplomacy: promoting American economic interests in other countries and using that economic power to achieve goals.
Bought out European loans - US investment of more than $1.6 billion in Latin America.
Some resentment was caused. In 1912, Taft sent in U.S. troops to stop an uprising against authorities. US Foreign Policy American work began in May 1904
Harsh working conditions, material shortages, malaria, and the yellow fever hampered construction
Colonel William Gorgas exterminated yellow fever in the area
$400,000,000 later, in August 1914 the SS Ancon became the first ship to pass through the canal Building the Canal President William McKinley Dr. Walter Reed made advances were made to eliminate yellow fever. Cuban-American Affairs while McKinley was personally against the war, the public outcry demanded it
April 25, 1898 ~ US goes to war with Spain
Teller Amendment ~ the US would help Cuba achieve independence, however the US would not gain Cuba as a territory, but Cuba would be a free nation “Remember the Maine!” Commodore Perry isolated and unindustrialized until the mid-1800s
Commodore Matthew Perry brought four steamships into Tokyo Bay in 1853 to "pressure" Japan to open its ports to trade.
quickly became an industrial and military power to compete with the West. Military
Advances in technology
Growing navel bases
Spread western civilization
Law, culture, medicine and religion Panama was a
part of the
Colombia. Revolutionaries were plotting to break free of Colombian rule.
President Theodore Roosevelt supported the revolution and recognized the new government, the Republic of Panama.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty gave the United States complete control of the 10-mile-wide Canal Zone for $40 million Revolution in Panama Anti-Imperialists
to annex the Philippines would violate the principles set forth in the Declaration of Independence
violated the ideal of self-government
racism and violence
increase immigration Philippines - The Great Debate European countries colonized Africa and Asia US felt the need to expand to maintain pace with European countries Pressure to Expand Japan Spanish colony
Tariff of 1894 made sugar production of Cuba became less profitable
Cubans torched sugarcane fields and mills
REASON: if they destroyed enough of Cuba and did enough damage, then Spain might abandon Cuba or the United States might move in and help the Cubans with their independence.
WHY? US had large investments in Cuba
RESULT: Spanish General "Butcher" Weyler began placing civilians in reconcentration camps where they were treated poorly. February 9, 1989 - Hearst's NY Journal publishes a private letter written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lome which degrades President McKinley
February 15, 1898 - USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor
sent as a "friendly visit", but was there to protect/evacuate Americans should war occur
2-SIDES TO EVERY STORY ~ The Spanish investigators deduced that it was an accident (spontaneous combustion in one of the coal bunkers) while the American investigators claimed that a Spanish mine had sunk it
Newspapers reported the uprising with dramatic headlines and articles. American people were clamoring for war!
August 12, 1898 ~ Spain signs an armistice July 1, 1898 ~ Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders along with the Buffalo Soldiers helped gain control of the city at the Battle of San Juan Hill.
July 3, 1898 ~ The U.S. Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba. Spain sent a fleet of warships to Cuba which were blockaded in the Santiago Harbor by American ships. Spanish troops outnumbered the Americans nearly 7 to 1 February 25, 1898 ~ Assistant Secretary of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt messaged Commodore Dewey to head towards Spain's Philippines "just in case" of war
May 1, 1898, Dewey attacked and destroyed the 10-ship Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
After attacking, he was unable to go ashore because he lacked the forces
August 13, 1898 ~ the troops captured Manila
The victory in the Philippines prompted the idea that Hawaii was needed as a supply base for Dewey in the Philippines
Congress passed a joint resolution of Congress to annex Hawaii on July 7, 1898. Treaty of Paris Imperialists
patriotism and glory
natural resources and new markets
someone else could take them over
spread Christian life Does the Constitution
follow the flag? President William McKinley set up a military government in Cuba. U.S.-appointed Governor of Cuba Leonard Wood oversaw the drafting of a new Cuban Constitution in 1901. US Soldiers
many soldiers became sick from malaria, yellow fever, food poisoning, typhoid fever
400 died from bullets
5,000 died from bacteria or illness "White Man's Burden
Take up the White man's burden --
Send forth the best ye breed --
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness
On fluttered folk and wild --
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child. Roosevelt becomes President when McKinley is assassinated
more worldly than most of his predecessors
adopted "Big Stick" diplomacy ~ used to describe his dealings with the nations of Latin America ~ leads to the Roosevelt Corollary
intervened in Venezuela (1902), Panama (1903) and the Dominican Republic (1905)
Wanted to protect Philippines and maintenance of trading rights in China. Recently westernized Japan emerged from the Russo-Japanese War as a world power...Roosevelt arbitrated a peace agreement...wins the Nobel Prize
McKinley’s effort at military reform and modernization continued under Roosevelt....dispatched a dolled-up Great White Fleet on an around-the-world cruise intended to showcase American naval might...ideas of Alfred Theyer Mahan Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt responded, "Damn the law. I want the canal built."
He also was looking to win the election of 1904