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Terms and concepts on intermediality
Transcript of Terms and concepts on intermediality
Medium (sing.), media (pl.)
• medium of communication
• physical or technical medium : substances and/or instruments used in the production of a sign in any medium — e.g, human body; oil on canvas, brush and ink; marble, wood; video camera; piano, flute, percussion instruments; voice; television, sound recorder, computer, typewriter, pen; paper, parchment, skin; textiles; etc.
• public media: newspapers and magazines, radio and television.
Literature indicates only one class of verbal medium, with many genres, together with several other non-literary genres.
Interarts Studies: A Critical Introduction (2001)
S. H. Butcher, Aristotle’s Theory of Poetry and Fine Art (1894): He pointed out that Aristotle was the first to say there was a significant distinction between “beaux arts” and “applied arts”.
Walzel, 1917: “mutual illumination of the arts”. Concepts and methods used to study one art could be applied, with a few adjustments, in studying another art form.
Creation of the field of comparative literature and comparative arts.
Modified by new transdisciplinary discourses such as cultural studies, psychology, anthropology, linguistics, communication, etc.
Interarts Studies: Not only a contrastive but an integrative view of the arts.
What is art? A solution: to view art as a social construct and, therefore, subject to modifications.
A work of art as a text: “dance, a sonnet, an etching, a cathedral, a film, an opera, are all ‘texts’ to be ‘read’. So as with a letter stamp, a TV program, a religious procession, a marketing logo, a videoclip, etc." Interarts studies considers all texts as art.
Departmentalization in modern academia:
Opera, music -> music department
Poetry -> literature department
An inadequate structure to study the several cultural phenomena, from the past and the present, where intermedia and multimedia texts abound.
Inter textus / Inter artes / Inter media (2006)
1) plurimediatic texts: opera = theatrical performance, music, music lyrics and score, booklet.
2) Intersemiotic transposition: “the shift from one system of signs to another and, normally, also from one medium to another.” Source-text and target-text.
- multimedia texts: separable and coherently separated texts composed in different media. There is an interdependence between visual and verbal texts.
- mixed-media texts: signs in different media that would not be coherent or self-sufficient outside that context.
- intermedia texts: two or more sign systems or media in a way that the visual, musical, verbal, kinetic, and performative aspects from their signs are inseparable and indissociable.
Terms and concepts on intermediality
Intermediality is the most convenient term.
Intermediality: investigates all kinds of relations and interactions among media. Recent term to a cultural phenomenon found in all cultures and times.
Acc. to Helbig, the concept of intermediality covers at least 3 senses:
1) relations between media in general (ex. plurimediatic texts);
2) transpositions from one medium to another (intersemiotic transposition);
3) fusion/union of media (multimedia, intermedia and mixed-media texts)
Interarts Studies: Concepts, Terms, Objectives (1997)
Linguist Roman Jakobson (“On the linguistic aspects of translation”, 1959):
- intralingual translation (rephrasing, synonyms);
- interlingual translation (one idiom to another);
- intersemiotic translation: “the interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign systems.” (poem -> painting)
Leo Hoek (“La transposition intersémiotique: pour une classification pragmatique”, 1995): investigate types of relations involving text and image
primacy of the text or of the image:
- relation transmédiale (film adaptation);
- discours multimédial (book illustrations)
simultaneity of image and text:
- discours mixte: each keeps its identity (comics, stamps);
- discours syncrétique: there is a fusion of elements (visual poetry, caligram)
un coup des dès, Mallarmé
Forsythia, Mary Ellen Solt
Lettre Ocean, Apollinaire