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ESL Methods Timeline
Transcript of ESL Methods Timeline
August 7, 2012 ESL Methods Timeline Origins in Classical Instruction
When: 18th and 19th centuries, through 1960's Grammar Translation Who: Gouin and Palmer
When: around 1900 in Germany and France Direct Method Method Highlights:
Taught in mother tongue
Detailed grammar explanations
Memorization of vocabulary
Text translations and written exercises
Behaviorist philosophy - goal was to translate (versus communicate)
No attention to pronunciation. Pros:
Learn how to translate.
Plenty of practice writing. Cons:
No everyday life communication learned.
Learning not meaningful or in context. Method Highlights:
Limited use of native language, aim to use only target language.
Real life objects and authentic conversation.
No explicit grammar instruction.
Question/answer sequences common. Pros:
Modeled correct language use.
Authentic language aids in learning applicable grammar structures. Cons:
No direct teaching.
No native language use - limits capacity for understanding.
High affective filter.
Assumes L2 learning same as L1 learning. Who: Charles Fries
When: 1940's until 1960's Audiolingual, "Army Method" Method Highlights:
Reaction to WWII and need for non-native speakers to sound fluent for army intelligence.
Based on Behaviorist Theory.
Oral language proficiency the focus.
Emphasis on perfect pronunciation and accuracy (drills).
L1 interference, only target language allowed. Pros:
Words used in context (linguistic and cultural).
Authentic dialogue practice. Cons:
High affective filter.
Memorization emphasis (short term memory is limited). Who: Curran, based on Carl Roger's work.
When: 1970's Community/Counselor Language (CCL) Method Highlights:
All about community building, especially in L1 first.
Students speak when ready, teacher translates, students repeat, etc.
Students need less and less translation as they acquire L2.
Students are referred to as clients, teachers as counselors. Pros:
Collaboration and community building..
Low affective filter.
Use of L1 critical to approach. Cons:
Repetition, no direct instruction.
Relies heavily on listening skills.
Oral language production focus (no writing). Who: Bulgarian doctor and psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov
When: 1966 Suggestology Research Institute founded.
1975, Dr. Donald Schuster and Dr. Charles Gritton formed the Society for Accelerative Learning and Teaching (SALT) at Iowa State University. Suggestopedia Method Highlights:
Suggestion and pedagogy combined.
Steps: a. Presentation - students helped into relaxation, learning will be fun! b. 1st concert - presentation (read aloud by teacher) of text with music in background. c. 2nd concert - students relax, listen to Baroque music, text is read quietly. d. - practice language with games, puzzles, etc. Pros:
Freedom for students/student-centered.
Low affective filter.
Integrates music and art into language learning (interdisciplinary). Cons:
No firm science behind method.
No emphasis on grammar or authentic language.
Based on brain science more than educational foundations. Who: Gattegno
When: 1963 from Gattegno's book: Teaching Foreign Language in Schools in the Silent Way Silent Way Method Highlights:
Based on belief that learners should develop independence, autonomy, and responsibility for learning.
Discovery learning/problem solving approach.
Teacher does not talk.
Teacher is stimulator and offers little correction.
Cuisinere rods and wall charts used to introduce vocabulary, pronunciation, models and grammar. Pros:
Use of visuals.
Gets students producing language. Cons:
Students are not challenged.
No direct teaching support.
Not authentic, rather awkward.
Does not use all language domains. Who: James Asher
When: 1960's Total Physical Response (TPR) Method Highlights:
Based on Chomsky's idea that brain is pre-wired for language learning.
Method uses physical response to verbal instruction to teach language. Pros:
Students can listen - may 'honor' silent period in language acquisition.
Gets students moving. Doing something physical helps with memory. Cons:
Not very good for learning academic language (mostly imperatives).
Doesn't require learner to produce language (spoken or written). Who: Tracy Terell and Stephen Krashen
When: started 1983 The Natural Approach Method Highlights:
Focus is on acquisition versus learning, based on the Language Acquisition theory that Krashen developed.
Teaching based on observation of student's language skills.
Teaching based on student's L1 acquisition.
No native language used for L2 instruction.
No grammar taught.
Language development follows stages of pre-production (silent period), early production(errors expected), and extending discourse (focus on oral production). Pros:
Low affective filter (errors okay).
Oral language practice.
Honors fact that language learning happens on a progression. Cons:
No explicit language instruction.
How do teachers know how a student learned L1?
No native language use. Who: British linguist D.A. Wilkins
When: 1972 Notional Functional Approach Method Highlights:
Focus on pragmatic purposes of language.
Used to help refugees with adjustment and acculturation issues.
Functions correspond with language functions
Notion=general and specific concept
Focus on practical application of language such as completing job application, lease agreement, banking forms, etc. Pros:
Connected/related to everyday life.
Helped refugees with transitions. Cons:
Limited to pragmatic use of language - ignores intellectual and artistic side to language.
Does not develop every aspect or domain of language. Who: Based on theories by Lev Vygotsky. Also Beverly Derewianka.
When: 1978. 1990's - present. Genre-Based Approaches Method Highlights:
Meeting students where they are at (Zone of Proximal Development) - learner centered.
Integrated - content and language objectives.
Authentic - learning occurs through social interaction.
Balanced approach is best.
Emphasis on academic language learning.
Teaching about the purpose of and grammar features of types of texts (genres). Who: Chamot and O'Malley. Dutro and Moran
When: 1994 -to present Academic Language Functions Method Highlights:
Purpose and use of language.
Language used for specific purposes.
Language integrated with academic content.
Defines specific language to meet academic goals.
Student centered learning with supportive practice.
Helps language learners access content while learning L2. Cons:
Teachers need to content and language teachers.
Training and skill needed to work with language learners. Pros:
Language objectives help focus on language learning and text complexities.
Based on what we know about how people learn (cognitive science). Cons:
Planning for content and language instruction takes a lot of time.
Specialized language teacher training needed. Who: Based on Piaget and Bandura
When: since 1980's Cognitive Learning Method Highlights:
Sheltered Instruction (SIOP)
Development of CALP
Focus on metacognitive, cognitive and social affective skills.
Addresses four domains of language.
Student focused, draws on students' schema/prior knowledge. Pro:
Makes use of student's prior knowledge and experience. Con:
Missing out on potential creativity by focusing too much on processing and cognition.