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05-05-

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Transcript of 05-05-

When women opt to use other mothers’ milk. Milk banks
12 milk banks affiliated with the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA),
Sets standards and guidelines for donor milk banking in the U.S. and Canada.
In 2008, these banks sent 42 million milliliters of breast milk to hospitals and individuals in 80-plus cities.

Milk banks receive milk from
lactating mothers who have been
screened for health/lifestyle behaviors
and communicable diseases.






Hill PD, Aldag JC, Demirtas H, Naeem V, Parker NP, Zinaman MJ, Chatterton RT Jr.
Association of serum prolactin and oxytocin with milk production in mothers of preterm and term infants.
Biol Res Nurs. 2009 Apr;10(4):340-9. Epub 2009 Feb 17. Survey results of bottle-feeding mothers describing factors contributing to bottle-feeding. Arora S et al. Pediatrics 2000;106:e67-e67 ©2000 by American Academy of Pediatrics Composition of human milk




Br Med J. 1898 Jan 22;1(1934):199-203. Mother Wet nursing Only birth control technique was breastfeeding.
Peasant women nursed their children –and
served as wet nurses to others– well into toddlerhood,
which allowed them to space out their pregnancies.

Rousseau strongly advocated breastfeeding in his very
influential Emile (published 1761) and the
practice soon became fashionable among women
of the nobility and bourgeoisie as well.


Louis XIV Because breastfeeding was considered a marital obligation, divorced women were no longer required to nurse their children.

Instead, the father became responsible either for hiring a wet nurse or for paying the mother to nurse.

However, the rabbis worried that a baby old enough to recognize his or her mother would refuse milk from a stranger, and would starve as a result.



Chertok IR, Zimmerman DR
Contraceptive considerations for breastfeeding women within Jewish law
International Breastfeeding Journal 2007, 2:1 doi:10.1186/1746-4358-2-1 Muslim Verses from the Qurán, the Holy Book of Muslims.)
"The mothers (including those divorced) shall nurse their children for two whole years if they wish to complete the period of nursing.
The father shall bear the cost of their feeding and clothing on equitable terms.
If you get in discord, let another woman nurse him; and the father should pay for the nurse.
If they (that is, the parents) both decide on weaning (the child) by mutual consent and after due consultation they are not to blame.
Also they are not to blame if they decide on a foster mother, provided they insure, in a fair manner the safety of the child." Social aspects of breastfeeding
(in developed countries)



Anne Marie Oudesluys-Murphy Evolution Statue from Mykene,
Period: Mykenian Civilization, 14th/13th c. BC
Size 9 cm
Greece Isis nursing Horus
Period: Late Period–Ptolemaic Period, 664–30 B.C.
Egypt Suckling Krishna and Yashoda
South Indian Traditional Painting Allegory of Charity.
Lucas Cranach, the elder. 1537-50
Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels Hypothalmus Posterior Pituitary Oxytocin Anterior Pituitary
Prolactin Central Nervous system
Stimulation of breasts Suckling leads to neurogenic responses mediated through the medulla to inhibit dopamine secretion in arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons and stimulate oxytocin (OXY) secretion in paraventricular (PVN) neurons to release prolactin (PROL) from the anterior pituitary. 



Prolactin and oxytocin exert effects on the breast, but prolactin also gains entry into the CNS to affect maternal behavior and inhibit reproductive function by acting on medial preoptic neurons (mPOA), and further inhibit the secretion of dopamine from ARC neurons. 

Milk production leads to a fall in circulating levels of leptin causing an increase in NPY and AGRP and inhibition of POMC in ARC neurons.  NPY is also increased by neurogenic signals from the brainstem.  Inhibitory effects of NPY on GnRH-producing neurons in the mPOA contributes to inhibition of reproductive function.  NPY also exerts direct effects on the PVN to induce increase feeding and promote energy conservation.


















Neville MC, McFadden TB, Forsyth I.
Hormonal regulation of mammary differentiation and milk secretion.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2002 Jan;7(1):49-66. Survey results of breastfeeding mothers describing factors contributing to breastfeeding. Arora S et al. Pediatrics 2000;106:e67-e67 ©2000 by American Academy of Pediatrics Arora S et al.
Pediatrics 2000;106:e67-e67 The child









Neville MC.
The physiological basis of milk secretion.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;586:1-11. Section on Breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.
Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):e827-41. Epub 2012 Feb 27. Review Scott JA, Ng SY, Cobiac L.
The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents.
BMC Public Health. 2012 Feb 7;12:107. Taste experiences
Appetite control Cooke L, Fildes A.
The impact of flavour exposure in utero and during milk feeding on
food acceptance at weaning and beyond
Appetite. 2011, Dec;57(3):808-11. Epub 2011 May 27. Comfort and attention for baby Less postpartum blood loss
Lactational amenorrhea
Higher iron reserves, leading to less anaemia
Long term health benefits mother Mother away from child


















Nickerson LE, Sykes AC, Fung TT.
Mothers' experience of fathers' support for breast-feeding.
Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jan 27:1-8. [Epub ahead of print] Role model http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=fqYoZVroBZs Family planning
















Van der Wijden C, Kleijnen J, Van den Berk T.
Lactational amenorrhea for family planning.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD001329. Body perception and desires Mothers and babies in prision Prison: Mothers and Children Between April 2005 and July 2008, 283 children were born to women prisoners in the UK
High proportion of these were to mothers aged 18 and 19 Politics and Breastfeeding The human need for food and nutrition is affirmed or implied in

The International Covenant on Economic , Social and Cultural Rights (1976)

The Convention on the Rights of the Chlid (1990)


Also in other binding international human rights agreements such as the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981)








George Kent Male-dominated medical model and business interests that promote bottle feeding Successful breastfeeding reduces women's dependence on medical professionals and discourages further medicalization of infant feeding.

The knowledge mothers and midwives have about infant care and feeding increases in value and importance. 

When breastfeeding is highly valued, the social and physical costs of breastfeeding are more carefully considered.

Women's bodies are finite, and cannot be over-burdened without causing suffering and loss of their productive and reproductive capacities.

Breastfeeding mothers need access to food, health care and a supportive environment.  Breastfeeding and the law USA Forty-five states, have laws that specifically allow women to breastfeed in any public or private location.  
Twenty-eight states exempt breastfeeding from public indecency laws.
Twenty-four states have laws related to breastfeeding in the workplace.
Twelve states exempt breastfeeding mothers from jury duty.
Five states have implemented or encouraged the development of a breastfeeding awareness education campaign. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding




FACT SHEET
What are the economic benefits of breastfeeding?
Families who follow optimal breastfeeding practices can save between $1,200–$1,500 in expenditures on infant formula in the first year alone.
A study published last year in the journal Pediatrics estimated that if 90% of U.S. families followed guidelines to breastfeed exclusively for six months, the U.S. would annually save $13 billion from reduced medical and other costs.
For both employers and employees, better infant health means fewer health insurance claims, less employee time off to care for sick children, and higher productivity.
Mutual of Omaha found that health care costs for newborns are three times lower for babies whose mothers participate in the company’s employee maternity and lactation program.
Prepared January 20, 2011 Costs for national economy Costs of raw materials, feeding and caring for cattle, land use, methane production
Transport and refrigeration of cow’s milk
Manufacture of milk powder, factory, energy, pollution
Packaging of milk powder, marketing, transport
Disposal of packaging, environmental effects
Preparation and heating of formula
Water, bottles, teats, bottle-warmers etc. Household economic aspects

Formula prices are based on an average daily consumption of 30 ounces per day.
Prices from Publix Supermarkets, Orlando, FL (April 2005) Insufficient lactation Too little glandular breast tissue.
Chronic and acute illnesses.
Mastectomy, breast-reduction surgery
Certain communicable illnesses and some medications can hamper breastfeeding or make it unadvisable
Too much stress and sleep disturbances.



Prematurity (because of a weak sucking reflex)
Low muscle tone
Acute illnesses
Disorders of the mouth such as cleft, lip and palate
Hypersensitivity to touch in and around the mouth area.
A shortened frenulum (tongue tie). Wet nursing and Cross feeding

Wet nursing and cross feeding both involve the breastfeeding of a child by someone other than the mother.

Wet nursing involves a woman who is not the social equal of the employer, is never reciprocal, and is normally for payment.

Cross feeding (also 'cross nursing') is the informal sharing of breastfeeding between equals, and is usually unpaid and may be reciprocal.


















Breastfeed Rev. 2008 Mar;16(1):25-9.
Sharing breastmilk: wet nursing, cross feeding, and milk donations.
Thorley V. Modern wet nurses Wet nursing is a growing industry, mostly invisible.

Certified Household Staffing is a Los Angeles-based agency that provides for almost every imaginable domestic need.

Just over 10 years ago, wet nursing was added to the service and it now has over 1,000 women on its wet nurse registry.

The wet nurse lives in and receives an average of $1,000 a week. Cultural and traditional practices These practices influence lactation and breastfeeding and overall well-being and health of mothers and infants.

Breastfeeding programs should take into account traditional beliefs and concepts when communicating with families about practices such as food restriction and food avoidance. Hindu Some Hindus believe that breastfeeding their babies is a way of repaying their own mother's milk.

By having breast milk, mothers are worshipped as the Hindu goddess Durga, the mother goddess.

Therefore, breastfeeding and breast milk are thought to have special powers which are highlighted in religious texts such as the Sushrauta Samhita (a collection of sacred texts written by a surgeon in 400 B.C.).

These texts also recommend delaying breastfeeding until "true milk" comes in, discarding colostrum.







Alex Grey Social aspects of breastfeeding Evolution
Pregnancy and birth
Child and breastfeeding
Mother and breastfeeding
Family and breastfeeding
Society and breastfeeding
Political aspects of breastfeeding
Economic aspects of breastfeeding
When breastfeeding is not possible or not chosen
Cultural and religious aspects Venus of Willendorf
Period: Circa 24,000 BCE – 22,000 BCE
Size 11.1 cm, discovered in 1908
near Willendorf, Austria Kourotrophos
Period: Circa mid 6th century BC
Syracuse Sicily
(a century after the foundation of the city).
In the Paolo Orsi Museum in Syracuse Hera suckling Herakles while Aphrodite
and Iris look on
c. 360-350 BCE
Greece
In British Museum, London.
The Origin of the Milky Way.
Tintoretto 1575
National Gallery, London

The Virgin and Child
Barnaba da Modena, 1360
Italy Pregnancy and birth Before birth the child is fed through umbilical cord
At birth mother’s hormones change and breastmilk is produced







Neville MC, McFadden TB, Forsyth I.
Hormonal regulation of mammary differentiation and milk secretion.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2002 Jan;7(1):49-66. The endocrine control of lactation is one of the most complex physiologic mechanisms of human parturition.
Mammogenesis, lactogenesis, galactopoiesis, and galactokinesis are all essential to assure proper lactation.
Prolactin is the key hormone of lactation and seems to be the single most important galactopoietic hormone.
Oxytocin, serotonin, opioids, histamine, substance P, and arginine-leucine modulate prolactin release by means of an autocrine/paracrine mechanism, whereas estrogen and progesterone hormones can act at the hypothalamic and adenohypophysial levels.
Human placental lactogen and growth factors play an essential role to assure successful lactation during pregnancy. Oxytocin is the most powerful galactokinetic hormone.


















Glasier A, McNeilly AS.
Physiology of lactation.
Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jun;4(2):379-95. Composition of breastmilk is adjusted to the needs of the child
Protects against infections
Protects against atopy
Aids development of gastrointestinal function
Protects against obesity and overweight
Protects against hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia
Protects against SIDS
Influences cognitive and motor development
Protects against diabetes mellitus
Broadens taste experience
Facilitates bonding, protects against child abuse




















Bode L.
Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Every Baby needs a Sugar Mama
Glycobiology, Advance Access published April 18, 2012 Evidence Report/Technology Assessment
Number 153
Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health
Outcomes in Developed Countries
Prepared for:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
540 Gaither Road
Rockville, MD 20850
www.ahrq.gov
Contract No. 290-02-0022 Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and resistin have been detected in human milk.
These hormones are involved in the regulation of energy balance and may play role in regulation of growth and development in the neonatal period and infancy, as well as long-term effects on metabolic programming.






Savino F, Liguori SA, Lupica MM.
Adipokines in breast milk and preterm infants
Early Human Development, Volume 86, Issue 1, Supplement, July 2010, Pages 77-80
















Pearson RM, Lightman SL, Evans J.
The impact of breastfeeding on mothers' attentional sensitivity towards infant distress.
Infant Behav Dev. 2011 Feb;34(1):200-5. Epub 2010 Dec 24.

















Strathearn L, Mamun AA, Najman JM, Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):483-93.
Does breastfeeding protect against substantiated child abuse and neglect? A 15-year cohort study.
Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):483-93. Enjoyment of breastfeeding
Empowering effect of breastfeeding More convenience
No need to buy, prepare and heat food for baby
Always available immediately
Health benefits mother
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment
Number 153
Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health
Outcomes in Developed Countries
Prepared for:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
540 Gaither Road
Rockville, MD 20850
www.ahrq.gov
Contract No. 290-02-0022 Family


















J Hum Lact. 2005 Feb;21(1):67-8.
What grandparents can do to help a breastfeeding mother.
Ishii KD, Heinig MJ Breasts and Society
Breastfeeding challenges views of the breast as primarily a sex object.  How did breasts become defined as sex objects for male pleasure rather than as the source of food and comfort for children?
The sex industry and beauty industry have succeeded in objectifying media and advertising, making it difficult for some women to breastfeed in public.
When feeding bottles are used in public for fear of public exposure of breasts, or when women's reasons for choosing bottle feeding include fears that breastfeeding will alter the shape of their breasts, then women are being treated as sex objects.  Feeding in public


















Kendall-Tackett KA, Sugarman M.
The social consequences of long-term breastfeeding.
J Hum Lact. 1995 Sep;11(3):179-83. PSO 4801: Direct references to breast feeding

Included under Baby Nutrition
19.6 'All Mother and Baby Units must have a written policy on child nutrition,
Including breastfeeding, based on Department of Health Guidelines.' Breastfeeding Women's issue,
Human rights’ issue
Feminist issue

Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality.
Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work.
Conditions supportive to successful nurturing, are conditions which reduce gender subordination generally by contradicting negative images of women and emphasizing the value of women's reproductive work.  Women who wish to breasted their babies but cannot - because of inadequate support from family or health workers, constraints in the workplace, or misinformation from the infant food industry - are oppressed and exploited.

Groups and individuals interested in fighting for women's rights and human rights should take action to change this situation, and recognize breastfeeding as a woman's right.
 
Women are empowered by asserting the value of both their productive and reproductive work.
UK Equity Act 2010:
sex discrimination to treat a woman unfavourably because she is breastfeeding 2011 USA Internal Revenue Service announced it would allow people to deduct breast-feeding expenses from their taxes.
Michele Bachmann (R) accused the first lady of pushing a leftist agenda
Sarah Palin says “ just leave us alone, get off our back, and allow us as individuals to exercise our own God-given rights.”




















Ogbuanu C, Glover S, Probst J, Liu J, Hussey J.
The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding.
Pediatrics. 2011 Jun;127(6):e1414-27. Epub 2011 May 29 Economic aspects of breastfeeding If 90% of all American mothers chose to breastfeed exclusively in the first six months $13 billion per year can be saved.
The costs include both direct and indirect costs of medical care for those afflicted and costs of missed time away from work for the mother.

Bartick M, Reinhold A.
The Burden of Suboptimal Breastfeeding in the United States: A Pediatric Cost Analysis
Pediatrics 2010; 125: e1048–e1056 90% compliance with exclusive breastfeeding could save

$4.7 billion and 447 excess deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome
$2.6 billion and 249 excess deaths related to necrotizing enterocolitis.

Otitis media and atopic dermatitis may be avoided, saving $908 million and $601 million respectively.

It is one of the primary methods recommended early to prevent childhood obesity, which may save $592 million each year.



Bartick M, Reinhold A.
The Burden of Suboptimal Breastfeeding in the United States: A Pediatric Cost Analysis
Pediatrics 2010; 125: e1048–e1056 Economic aspects UK Reduced treatment costs of formula-feeding-related illness

It was estimated in 1995 that the NHS spends £35 million per year in England and Wales treating
gastro-enteritis in formula-fed infants
For every one per cent increase in breastfeeding at 13 weeks, £500,000 would be saved






















Department of Health, Breastfeeding: Good practice guidance to the NHS.
Department of Health, 1995 That’s why some women, opt to use other mothers’ milk.

Formula just doesn’t have the potent health benefits of breast milk—whether it’s your own or someone else’s. The donor sends her frozen milk to one of the banks, where it’s thawed, pooled with other donors’ milk and heat-treated to kill bacteria and viruses.
The milk is refrozen and prepared for shipment
after a sample has been cultured and shows
no bacterial growth.
It is then shipped frozen to hospitals and
individuals in need. Mother-to-mother milk-sharing networks: enormous growth in the last 18 months


Connect mothers who can't produce enough with mothers who produce too much.

Eats on Feets, MilkShare and Human Milk 4 Human Babies





Lauren Vogel
Milk sharing: boon or biohazard?
CMAJ February 22, 2011 vol. 183 no. 3 109-3767 Jewish The rabbis of the Talmud categorized breastfeeding as a chore that women did for their husbands, just like cooking dinner or sewing clothes. As such, wealthy women could escape this task:
These are the labors that the woman must perform for her husband: she grinds and bakes and launders, cooks and nurses her child; she arranges the bed and works in wool.
If she brought him
one maidservant, she does not grind and does not bake and does not launder;
two (maidservants) and she does not cook and does not nurse her son;
three (maidservants) and she does not arrange the bed and does not work in wool;
four (maidservants) and she sits in an easy chair. (Mishnah, Ketubot 5:5) Venus of Willendorf
Period: Circa 24,000 BCE – 22,000 BCE
Size 11.1 cm, discovered in 1908
near Willendorf, Austria Statue from Mykene,
Period: Mykenian Civilization, 14th/13th c. BC
Size 9 cm
Greece Kourotrophos
Period: Circa mid 6th century BC
Syracuse Sicily
(a century after the foundation of the city).
In the Paolo Orsi Museum in Syracuse Isis nursing Horus
Period: Late Period–Ptolemaic Period, 664–30 B.C.
Egypt Hera suckling Herakles while Aphrodite
and Iris look on
c. 360-350 BCE
Greece
In British Museum, London.
The Origin of the Milky Way.
Tintoretto 1575
National Gallery, London Suckling Krishna and Yashoda
South Indian Traditional Painting

The Virgin and Child
Barnaba da Modena, 1360
Italy Allegory of Charity.
Lucas Cranach, the elder. 1537-50
Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels Pregnancy & Birth


















Neville MC, McFadden TB, Forsyth I.
Hormonal regulation of mammary differentiation and milk secretion.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2002 Jan;7(1):49-66. The endocrine control of lactation is one of the most complex physiologic mechanisms of human parturition.
Mammogenesis, lactogenesis, galactopoiesis, and galactokinesis are all essential to assure proper lactation.
Prolactin is the key hormone of lactation and seems to be the single most important galactopoietic hormone.
Oxytocin, serotonin, opioids, histamine, substance P, and arginine-leucine modulate prolactin release by means of an autocrine/paracrine mechanism, whereas estrogen and progesterone hormones can act at the hypothalamic and adenohypophysial levels.
Human placental lactogen and growth factors play an essential role to assure successful lactation during pregnancy. Oxytocin is the most powerful galactokinetic hormone. Lactation Survey results of breastfeeding mothers describing factors contributing to breastfeeding. Arora S et al. Pediatrics 2000;106:e67-e67 Survey results of bottle-feeding mothers describing factors contributing to bottle-feeding. Arora S et al. Pediatrics 2000;106:e67-e67 Arora S et al.
Pediatrics 2000;106:e67-e67 How mothers decide
how to feed Composition of breastmilk is adjusted to the needs of the child
Protects against infections
Protects against atopy
Aids development of gastrointestinal function
Protects against obesity and overweight
Protects against hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia
Protects against SIDS
Influences cognitive and motor development
Protects against diabetes mellitus
Broadens taste experience
Facilitates bonding, protects against child abuse




Br Med J. 1898 Jan 22;1(1934):199-203. Composition of
human milk




















Bode L.
Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Every Baby needs a Sugar Mama
Glycobiology, Advance Access published April 18, 2012









Neville MC.
The physiological basis of milk secretion.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;586:1-11. Section on Breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.
Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):e827-41. Epub 2012 Feb 27. Review Evidence Report/Technology Assessment
Number 153
Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health
Outcomes in Developed Countries
Prepared for:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
540 Gaither Road
Rockville, MD 20850
www.ahrq.gov
Contract No. 290-02-0022 Health advantages
for child Scott JA, Ng SY, Cobiac L.
The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents.
BMC Public Health. 2012 Feb 7;12:107. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and resistin have been detected in human milk.
These hormones are involved in the regulation of energy balance and may play role in regulation of growth and development in the neonatal period and infancy, as well as long-term effects on metabolic programming.

Savino F, Liguori SA, Lupica MM.
Adipokines in breast milk and preterm infants
Early Human Development,
Volume 86, Issue 1, Supplement, July 2010, Pages 77-80 Taste experiences
Appetite control Cooke L, Fildes A.
The impact of flavour exposure in utero and during milk feeding on
food acceptance at weaning and beyond
Appetite. 2011, Dec;57(3):808-11. Epub 2011 May 27. Care and attention
for baby
















Pearson RM, Lightman SL, Evans J.
The impact of breastfeeding on mothers' attentional sensitivity towards infant distress.
Infant Behav Dev. 2011 Feb;34(1):200-5. Epub 2010 Dec 24.

















Strathearn L, Mamun AA, Najman JM, Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):483-93.
Does breastfeeding protect against substantiated child abuse and neglect? A 15-year cohort study.
Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):483-93. Enjoyment
of breastfeeding
Empowering effect
of breastfeeding More convenient
No need to buy, prepare and heat food for baby
Always available immediately
Health benefits mother
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment
Number 153
Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health
Outcomes in Developed Countries
Prepared for:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
540 Gaither Road
Rockville, MD 20850
www.ahrq.gov
Contract No. 290-02-0022 Mother away
from child Family


















Nickerson LE, Sykes AC, Fung TT.
Mothers' experience of fathers' support for breast-feeding.
Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jan 27:1-8.


















J Hum Lact. 2005 Feb;21(1):67-8.
What grandparents can do to help a breastfeeding mother.
Ishii KD, Heinig MJ Role model Family planning
















Van der Wijden C, Kleijnen J, Van den Berk T.
Lactational amenorrhea for family planning.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD001329. Breasts and Society
Breastfeeding challenges
views of the breast as
primarily a sex object.  How did breasts become defined as sex objects for male pleasure rather than as the source of food and comfort for children?
The sex industry and beauty industry have succeeded in objectifying media and advertising, making it difficult for some women to breastfeed in public.
When feeding bottles are used in public for fear of public exposure of breasts, or when women's reasons for choosing bottle feeding include fears that breastfeeding will alter the shape of their breasts, then women are being treated as sex objects.  Feeding in public


















Kendall-Tackett KA, Sugarman M.
The social consequences of long-term breastfeeding.
J Hum Lact. 1995 Sep;11(3):179-83. Mothers and babies in prision PSO 4801: Direct references to breast feeding

Included under Baby Nutrition
19.6 'All Mother and Baby Units must have a
written policy on child nutrition, including breastfeeding, based on Department of Health Guidelines.' Prison: Mothers and Children Between April 2005 and July 2008, 283 children were born to women prisoners in the UK
High proportion of these were to mothers aged 18 and 19 The human need for food and nutrition is affirmed or implied in :

The International Covenant on Economic , Social and Cultural Rights (1976)

The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990)

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981)

George Kent Breastfeeding Women's issue,
Human rights’ issue
Feminist issue

Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality.
Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work.
Conditions supportive to successful nurturing, are conditions which reduce gender subordination generally by contradicting negative images of women and emphasizing the value of women's reproductive work.  Women who wish to breasted their babies but cannot - because of inadequate support from family or health workers, constraints in the workplace, or misinformation from the infant food industry - are oppressed and exploited.

Groups and individuals interested in fighting for women's rights and human rights should take action to change this situation, and recognize breastfeeding as a woman's right.
 
Women are empowered by asserting the value of both their productive and reproductive work.
UK Equity Act 2010:
sex discrimination to treat a woman unfavourably because she is breastfeeding Male-dominated medical model and business interests that promote bottle feeding
Successful breastfeeding reduces women's dependence on medical professionals and discourages further medicalization of infant feeding.

The knowledge mothers and midwives have about infant care and feeding increases in value and importance. 

When breastfeeding is highly valued, the social and physical costs of breastfeeding are more carefully considered.

Women's bodies are finite, and cannot be over-burdened without causing suffering and loss of their productive and reproductive capacities.

Breastfeeding mothers need access to food, health care and a supportive environment.  2011 USA Internal Revenue Service announced it would allow people to deduct breast-feeding expenses from their taxes.
Michele Bachmann (R) accused the first lady of pushing a leftist agenda
Sarah Palin says “ just leave us alone, get off our back, and allow us as individuals to exercise our own God-given rights.” Breastfeeding and the law USA Forty-five states, have laws that specifically allow women to breastfeed in any public or private location.  
Twenty-eight states exempt breastfeeding from public indecency laws.
Twenty-four states have laws related to breastfeeding in the workplace.
Twelve states exempt breastfeeding mothers from jury duty.
Five states have implemented or encouraged the development of a breastfeeding awareness education campaign. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding




















Ogbuanu C, Glover S, Probst J, Liu J, Hussey J.
The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding.
Pediatrics. 2011 Jun;127(6):e1414-27. Epub 2011 May 29 Politics and
Breastfeeding Economic aspects of breastfeeding 90% compliance with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months could save $13 billion per year. The costs include both direct and indirect costs of medical care for those afflicted and costs of missed time away from work for the mother

$4.7 billion and 447 excess deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome
$2.6 billion and 249 excess deaths related to necrotizing enterocolitis.

Otitis media and atopic dermatitis may be avoided, saving $908 million and $601 million respectively.

It is one of the primary methods recommended early to prevent childhood obesity, which may save $592 million each year.



Bartick M, Reinhold A.
The Burden of Suboptimal Breastfeeding in the United States: A Pediatric Cost Analysis
Pediatrics 2010; 125: e1048–e1056 Economic aspects UK Reduced treatment costs of formula-feeding-related illness

It was estimated in 1995 that the NHS spends £35 million per year in England and Wales treating
gastro-enteritis in formula-fed infants
For every one per cent increase in breastfeeding at 13 weeks, £500,000 would be saved






















Department of Health, Breastfeeding: Good practice guidance to the NHS.
Department of Health, 1995 Costs for national economy Costs of raw materials, feeding and caring for cattle, land use, methane production
Transport and refrigeration of cow’s milk
Manufacture of milk powder, factory, energy, pollution
Packaging of milk powder, marketing, transport
Disposal of packaging, environmental effects
Preparation and heating of formula
Water, bottles, teats, bottle-warmers etc. Insufficient lactation Maternal causes
Too little glandular breast tissue.
Chronic and acute illnesses.
Mastectomy, breast-reduction surgery
Certain communicable illnesses and some medications can hamper breastfeeding or make it unadvisable
Too much stress and sleep disturbances.

Infant causes
Prematurity (because of a weak sucking reflex)
Low muscle tone
Acute illnesses
Disorders of the mouth such as cleft, lip and palate
Hypersensitivity to touch in and around the mouth area.
A shortened frenulum (tongue tie). When breastfeeding is insufficient or not possible some women opt to use other mothers’ milk.

Formula does not have the potent health benefits of breast milk—whether it is from the mother of the baby or someone else Milk banks Milk banks receive milk from lactating mothers who have been screened for health/lifestyle behaviours and communicable diseases

Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA)
Sets standards and guidelines for donor milk banking in the U.S. and Canada.
In 2008, these banks sent 42 million milliliters of breast milk to hospitals and individuals in 80-plus cities. The donor sends her frozen milk to one of the banks, where it’s thawed, pooled with other donors’ milk and heat-treated to kill bacteria and viruses.
The milk is refrozen and prepared for shipment
after a sample has been cultured and shows
no bacterial growth.
It is then shipped frozen to hospitals and
individuals in need. Mother-to-mother milk-sharing networks: enormous growth in the last 18 months


Connect mothers who can't produce enough with mothers who produce too much.

Eats on Feets, MilkShare and Human Milk 4 Human Babies

Lauren Vogel
Milk sharing: boon or biohazard?
CMAJ February 22, 2011 vol. 183 no. 3 109-3767 Wet nursing and Cross feeding

Wet nursing and cross feeding both involve the breastfeeding of a child by someone other than the mother.

Wet nursing involves a woman who is not the social equal of the employer, is never reciprocal, and is normally for payment.

Cross feeding (also 'cross nursing') is the informal sharing of breastfeeding between equals, and is usually unpaid and may be reciprocal.


Breastfeed Rev. 2008 Mar;16(1):25-9.
Sharing breastmilk: wet nursing, cross feeding, and milk donations.
Thorley V. Wet nursing For many women the most widely avaiable method of birth control was prolonged breastfeeding.

Peasant women nursed their children –and
served as wet nurses to others– well into toddlerhood, which allowed them to space out their pregnancies.

Rousseau strongly advocated breastfeeding in his book Emile (published 1761) and the practice soon became fashionable among women of the nobility and bourgeoisie as well. Modern wet nurses Wet nursing is a growing industry, mostly invisible.

Certified Household Staffing is a Los Angeles-based agency
that provides for almost every imaginable domestic need.

Just over 10 years ago, wet nursing was added to the service
and it now has over 1,000 women on its wet nurse registry.

The wet nurse lives in and receives an average of $1,000 a week. Cultural and traditional practices
These practices influence lactation and breastfeeding and overall well-being and health of mothers and infants.

Breastfeeding programs should take into account traditional beliefs and concepts when communicating with families about practices such as food restriction and food avoidance. Jewish The rabbis of the Talmud categorized breastfeeding as a chore that women did for their husbands, just like cooking dinner or sewing clothes. As such, wealthy women could escape this task:
These are the labors that the woman must perform for her husband: she grinds and bakes and launders, cooks and nurses her child; she arranges the bed and works in wool.
If she brought him
one maidservant, she does not grind and does not bake and does not launder;
two (maidservants) and she does not cook and does not nurse her son;
three (maidservants) and she does not arrange the bed and does not work in wool;
four (maidservants) and she sits in an easy chair. (Mishnah, Ketubot 5:5) Because breastfeeding was considered a marital obligation, divorced women were no longer required to nurse their children.

Instead, the father became responsible either for hiring a wet nurse or for paying the mother to nurse.

However, the rabbis worried that a baby old enough to recognize his or her mother would refuse milk from a stranger, and would starve as a result.



Chertok IR, Zimmerman DR
Contraceptive considerations for breastfeeding women within Jewish law
International Breastfeeding Journal 2007, 2:1 doi:10.1186/1746-4358-2-1 Hindu Some Hindus believe that breastfeeding their babies is a way of repaying their own mother's milk.

By having breast milk, mothers are worshipped as the Hindu goddess Durga, the mother goddess.

Therefore, breastfeeding and breast milk are thought to have special powers which are highlighted in religious texts such as the Sushrauta Samhita (a collection of sacred texts written by a surgeon in 400 B.C.).

These texts also recommend delaying breastfeeding until "true milk" comes in, discarding colostrum. Muslim Verses from the Qurán, the Holy Book of Muslims.)
"The mothers (including those divorced) shall nurse their children for two whole years if they wish to complete the period of nursing.
The father shall bear the cost of their feeding and clothing on equitable terms.
If you get in discord, let another woman nurse him; and the father should pay for the nurse.
If they (that is, the parents) both decide on weaning (the child) by mutual consent and after due consultation they are not to blame.
Also they are not to blame if they decide on a foster mother, provided they insure, in a fair manner the safety of the child." Household economic aspects

Formula prices are based on an average daily consumption of 30 ounces per day.
Prices from Publix Supermarkets, Orlando, FL (April 2005) Arora S et al. Pediatrics 2000;106:e67-e67 Growth Lactation
without Pregnancy Grandmother To force lactation without pregnancy, the level of prolactin has to be increased in the body: this is possible by nipple stimulation.
Stimulate with regular massage of the breasts and by manual stimulation using a dual action breast pump
When the level of prolactin increases, the brain is given a signal to release oxytocin, which allows the release of milk from the breasts.

Medication may also be used to induce lactation.
Best known is domperidone. This interferes with the production of dopamine, which reduces the amount of prolactin produced by the pituitary gland. Health and Social aspects of breastfeeding
in developed countries Anne Marie Oudesluys-Murphy Adopted baby










FACEBOOK. HOW ABOUT BREASTBOOK? February 8, 2012
Protesters gathered at Facebook offices around the world, angry about the removal of breastfeeding photos. Lucy Allen, 21 years old from Sydney, was locked out of her account for two days for posting this picture.
Preparation of Breasts or Mammogenesis
Synthesis and secretion of milk from breast alveloi or Lactogenesis
Ejection of milk outside the breast or Galactokinesis
Maintenance of lactation or Galactopoiesis Anatomy and Physiology of Lactation
Pediatric Clinics of North America, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 13-34
Margaret C. Neville Domperidone has been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for use in breastfeeding and is currently the only galactogogue that has been scientifically evaluated through a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial .
This trial by da Silva et al. showed milk volume increased by 44.5% in the domperidone group compared with 16% in the placebo group (p<0.05). There was a steady increase in milk volume commencing 48 hours after initiation of treatment up until day 7, which was the last day of medication. This correlated with a rise in serum prolactin in the domperidone group, rising from 12.9 trial μ /L [SD7.7], measured as baseline, to 119.3 [SD97.3] μ/L of a randomly sampled blood test on day 5. The serum prolactin levels returned to baseline 3 days after treatment was ceased.
Dosage
10-20mgs, orally, 3-4 times per day
A prescription for 2 weeks should be given initially and may be repeated if necessary. The medication may need to be continued for up to 8 weeks, however the long-term use of domeperidone has not been studied 1.
There is little evidence to guide practice as regard to when to start, how long to continue and how to wean from domperidone.
da Silva et al. Effect of domperidone on milk production in mothers of premature newborns: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CMJ 2001;164(1):17-21. Kleinman,R. et al.
Protein Values of Milk Samples from Mothers without Biological Pregnancies. Journal of Pediatrics, 1980, 97:612-615. DT Ramsay, JC Kent, RA Hartmann, and PE Hartman
Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging


J Anat. 2005 June; 206(6): 525–534. Evolution



















J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1801S-1806S.
Antiinfective properties of human milk.
Chirico G, Marzollo R, Cortinovis S, Fonte C, Gasparoni A.



















J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1801S-1806S.
Antiinfective properties of human milk.
Chirico G, Marzollo R, Cortinovis S, Fonte C, Gasparoni A. Anatomy and Physiology of Lactation
Pediatric Clinics of North America, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 13-34
Margaret C. Neville
Long term health benefits mother Pediatrics. 2008 Oct;122 Suppl 2:S63-8.
Prevalence of breast milk expression and associated factors.
Labiner-Wolfe J, Fein SB, Shealy KR, Wang C. Body perception and desires Louis XIV Vrouwonline Borstenenquête augustus 2012, door ruim 1900 lezeressen ingevuld

Meer dan de helft wijst plastische chirurgie absoluut af.
Ruim 40% is zeer tevreden over haar borsten en vindt dat ze niet mag klagen,
Een derde is van mening dat het ermee door kan.

Bijna een derde kan niets aanwijzen wat ze écht niet mooi vindt aan haar boezem. 22% stoort zich echter aan haar hangende borsten
16% vindt ze te klein
10% vindt haar borsten te groot.

Meer dan de helft zouden plastische chirurgie niet overwegen.
Een kwart denkt daar anders over, zij zouden dat misschien ooit wel doen.
Een tiende zou het best overwegen.
20% vindt siliconenborsten ronduit lelijk Mother
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