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Tissue Types BI-207

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Jennifer Jezylo

on 21 September 2018

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Transcript of Tissue Types BI-207

Tissue Types
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
Squamous – (flattened) Lines blood vessels and lungs
Cuboidal – (cube-shaped) Lines kidney tubules
Columnar – (rectangular) Lines digestive tract
Can be ciliated – Lining the oviducts
... and then there's transitional - Changes shape from cuboidal to squamous
Types of epithelial cells ...
Simple – Single layer
Stratified – Multi-layered
Pseudo-stratified – Appearing to be layered
Can be ...
A single, specialized epithelial cell or a collection of specialized cells
Secretes a product
Sometimes into ducts ...
All exocrine glands (Goblet cells are an example) are modified epithelial cells
Sometimes directly into the blood stream ...
Endocrine glands (ductless)
Endocrine glands are formed from many different tissue types
Glands...
1) All have an extracellular matrix ...
2) All CT derived from mesenchymal tissue!
Mesodermal (mesoderm) embryonic germ layer
Differentiates into all other CT types
Small amount of remaining mesenchyme (stem cells) provides new CT cells (
fibroblasts = CT cells
) as needed
Binds organs together
Provides support and protection
Fills spaces
Produces blood cells
Stores fat
Other specialized stuff, too
Basically, connective tissue connects stuff
Matrix – (Extra cellular material) Non-cellular, fibrous material that ranges from solid liquid
Cells (
chondrocytes
) are within chambers (lacunae) separated by a solid, flexible matrix
No direct blood supply, so healing is slow!
Three types
Hyaline cartilage
(fetal skeleton, nose, ends of long bone, tracheal rings, etc)
Elastic cartilage
(ear pinna or flap)
Fibrocartilage
(intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, meniscus)
Cartilage cells are called
chondrocytes
Cartilage ...
Protects
Cushions
Allows movement
Bone ...
Protects
Provides support/movement
Stores fat and minerals
Produces ALL blood cells
Plasma (Matrix) - 55% of volume
Organic/inorganic substances dissolved in H2O
Cellular components - 45%
Made in the red bone marrow of the skull, ribs, vertebrae and ends of long bones
Blood ... liquid connective tissue
Functions in transport and other stuff
Muscle tissue - (contractile proteins)
Functions in MOVEMENT of substances
Three types:
Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac
Voluntary
Function: Move body parts
Attached to bone (by tendons)
Multi-nucleated
Appear striated (striped) – Due to the actin/myocin filaments
Muscle cell = Muscle fiber or myocyte
Heart walls
Involuntary
Single-nucleus (or bi-nucleate), branched cells, bound together by
intercalated discs
Intercalated discs – Cell (gap) junctions that allow the heart to function as one unit
Striated
Function: Move (Pump) blood
No visible striations
Involuntary
Found in the walls of intestine, stomach, blood vessels, and other internal organs
Function: Move food, blood, etc. by peristalsis and control blood pressure
Contains neurons and neuroglial cells
A nervous system cell is a NEURON
Neuroglial cells are several different types of cells which…
Help with support
Carry nutrients
Fight infection
Produce cerebral spinal fluid
Etc.
Nervous tissue ...
Functions in COMMUNICATION
Internally
Externally

Why would you find stratified squamous epithelium lining the esophagus?
a. Easy absorption of nutrients
b. To aid in movement of food through the lumen
c. For protection
d. Easy diffusion of gases
e. All of the above

Which tissue below is NOT one of the four basic tissue types?
a. Skeletal
b. Nervous
c. Epithelial
d. Muscle
e. Connective
Connective tissue ...
Functions of CT ...
Loose areolar connective tissue
Fills spaces and provides support
Binds stuff together
Dense regular connective tissue ...
Tendons
Ligaments
Adipose tissue
Stores lipid
Insulates
Protects
Adipocyte = Fat cell
This is the most rigid CT
Very hard matrix of Ca++ salts for rigidity and collagen fibers for elasticity and strength
Made up of units called osteons (Haversian system)
Bone cells - Osteocytes
More later
Skeletal ...
Cardiac ...
Smooth (Visceral) ...
Functions:
Sensory input (afferent)
Motor output (efferent)
Integration of data
Membranes ....
A thin lining of epithelium overlying loose connective tissue (IN MOST CASES)
Lines body cavities and/or spaces of organs that open to the outside

Mucous membranes – endothelium
Line digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems (the inside of hollow organs)
Contain goblet cells that secrete mucous
Mucous functions in protection from bacteria, viruses and protects organ walls from digestive juices

Epithelial

Little extracellular matrix (mostly cells)
Bound together by intercellular junctions
Polarized -
Apical (top) surface
and a
basal surface

Lack blood vessels- receive nutrients by diffusion from underlying tissues
Richly innervated to detect changes in environment
As cells are lost they are replaced by mitosis
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
Covers body surfaces and lines body cavities
Functions:
Externally
-
Protection against injury and pathogens
Keeps moisture in
Some possess sensory nerve endings that can detect light, taste, sound, and smell (neuroepithelium)
Some (exocrine cells) produce secretions (sweat or oil)
Internally –
Protection
Specialized functions depending on location
Most glands are modified epithelial tissue
Selectively permeable - regulates the passage of certain molecules in or out of certain regions
Functions of Epithelial Tissue

The basement membrane
(basal lamina) is a specialized structure of epithelium
Found between the epithelium and underlying connective tissue
Provides physical support and anchoring
Acts as a barrier to regulate passage of large molecules between epithelium and underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells are strongly bound to each other on their lateral surfaces by intercellular junctions
- Three major types of junctions ....
Tight junctions
Desmosomes
Gap junctions

Intercellular Junctions

Tight Junctions:
Tight junctions encircle cells near their apical surface
Prevents molecules from traveling between epithelial cells, therefore molecules must go through the epithelial cells rather than in between them
Tight junction function as “gatekeepers” between an external and internal environment

Desmosomes -
"Button-like"
Found at areas of mechanical stress between cells

Desmosomes

Gap junctions
Channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of apposed cells
Transmembrane proteins form the channel
Allow adjacent cells to communicate with each other by the flow of ions and other small molecular messengers

Gap Junctions

Classified according to ....
Number of layers
Shape of the cells
Transitional Epithelium

Lines the lumen of the urinary bladder
Simple squamous epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium
Simple columnar epithelium
Which is the apical surface?
a.
b.
c.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Simple cuboidal epithelium
(Kidney tubules)
Exocrine glands include merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine
Merocrine glands
secrete by secretory vesicles (Ex. islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and salivary glands)
Holocrine glands
secrete the entire cell contents (ex. sebaceous glands)
Apocrine glands
consist of cells that secrete from the apical region as a pinched off segment (Ex. human mammary glands)

Types of protein fibers produced by
fibroblasts
(general CT cell)
and secreted into the extracellular matrix:
Collagen fibers - long, unbranching, strong, flexible, and resistant to stretching
Most abundant protein in the body
Elastic fibers - stretch easily, branched
Reticular fibers - form a meshwork (stroma)
Found in spongy organs (liver, lymph nodes, and spleen, etc.)
Dense irregular connective tissue

Collagen fibers extending in many directions
Found in deep portion of the skin (dermis) and capsules around organs such as the liver, kidney, and spleen.

Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage -
(Intervertebral discs, meniscus, pubic symphysis)
Elastic cartilage
(Transmembrane proteins)
(With a goblet cell)
Compact bone
Elastic cartilage (again)
ONLY found in the epiglottis and pinna of the ear
a.
b.

c.
Where is the lumen?

Skeletal muscle
Cardiac
Intercalated disc
Smooth
Nervous
Neuron
The four basic tissue types include ...
a. Epithelial, skeletal, nervous, and bone
b. Muscle, nervous, epithelial, and connective
c. Cartilage, nervous, epithelial, and smooth
d. Squamous, muscle, epithelial, and nervous
e. Blood, nervous, bone, and skeletal

What's this?
a. Extracellular matrix
b. The nucleus
c. Cytoskeleton
d. Lumen
e. Basal lamina
a.
b.
c.
Where's the lumen?
Where's the nucleus?
= Connective tissue cell
Chondrocyte
Lacunae
Cellular components:
Leukocytes
Erythrocytes
Thrombocytes
What's this?
a. Actin/myocin
b. Nucleus
c. Myocyte
d. Matrix
e. Mitochondria
What's this?
a. Actin/myocin
b. Matrix
c. Myocyte
d. Nucleus
e. Intercalated disc
Circular layer
Longitudinal layer
What's this?
a. Actin/myocin
b. Nucleus
c. Myocyte
d. Matrix
e. Mitochondria
What is the matrix of blood?
a. Erythrocytes
b. Leukocytes
c. Plasma
d. The extracellular material
e. Both c and d
Smooth muscle
Basic tissue type?
a. Skeletal
b. Muscle
c. Cartilage
d. Bone
e. Connective
Specific tissue?
a. Blood
b. cartilage
c. Bone
d. Squamous
e. Nervous
Basic tissue type?
a. Skeletal
b. Muscle
c. Cartilage
d. Bone
e. Connective
Specific tissue?
a. Adipose
b. Blood
c. Nervous
d. Tendon
e. Cartilage

Found in the pinna of the ear.
Specific tissue?
a. Cartilage
b. Bone
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Hyaline
e. Fibrocartilage
Basic tissue type?
a. Skeletal
b. Muscle
c. Cartilage
d. Epithelial
e. Connective
Specific tissue?
a. Simple columnar
b. Simple cuboidal
c. Stradified cuboidal
d. Pseudostratified
e. Hyaline cartilage
Serous membranes
Mucous membranes

Synovial membranes and the meninges are mostly CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Mitosis = Cell division for growth and repair of somatic cells
Meiosis = Cell division in the gonads to produce the gametes
1. The term referring to production of ATP without requiring oxygen is ...
a. Hydrophobic
b. Fermentation
c. Hydrophylic
d. Anaerobic cellular respiration
e. Both b and d
2. By-products of AEROBIC cellular respiration include ...
a. CO2
b. Water
c. Lactic acid
d. Heat
e. a, b, and d
3. If a strong acid is added to a neutral solution ...
a. pH will increase
b. Acidity will increase
c. pH will decrease
d. Both b and c
e. There will be no change to the pH of the solution
4. Deoxyribonucelic acid (DNA) ...
a. Consists of nucleotides
b. Is the blueprint molecule for complex carbohydrates in the body
c. Is produced in the ribosomes
d. Is the same as RNA, except for the substitution of uracil
e. Both a and d
5. A human somatic cell ...
a. Undergoes meiosis for general growth and repair
b. Has 46 pair of chromosomes
c. Has a membrane-bound nucleus, but not organelles
d. Contains 23 chromosomes from the female parent and 23 from the male
e. All of the above
6. Ebola hemorrhagic fever is caused by a ssRNA virus. Below is a gene in the viral genome that codes for the enzyme badass protease.

Viral gene: AUG UAC AAG CCG UUU GGU CGC UAA

7. Record your polypeptide:
a. Met-Pro-Gly-Thr-Gin-Lys-Lys
b. Met-Tyr-Lys-Pro-Phe-Gly-Arg
c. Met-Asp-Val-Pro-Gin-Thr-Gin
d. Leu-Ala-Ile-Leu-Ser-Cys-Thr
e. Help!!!!
8. The serous membranes covering the organs of the ventral body cavity are the ...
a. Parietal pleura
b. Visceral pleura
c. Parietal pericardium
d. Visceral peritoneum
e. Parietal pericardium
9. A phagocyte is a(n) ...
a. Lysosome
b. Anucleate cell
c. Erythrocyte
d. Leukocyte
e. Clot cell
10. The by-products of aerobic cellular respiration ...
a. Include lactic acid and pyruvate
b. Leave the cell by diffusion and osmosis
c. Require active transport to enter the tissue fluid
d. Are glucose and oxygen
e. Can cause the intracellular pH to increase
11. The visceral pleura ...
a. Covers the lungs
b. Covers the intestines
c. Lines the abdomio-pelvic cavity
d. Lines the thoracic cavity
e. Covers the heart
12. What's a gamete?
a. Testes
b. Ovaries
c. Sperm cell
d. Egg cell
e. Both c and d
13. True or false: The process of mitosis results in two identical, diploid daughter cells and meiosis produces gametes.
a. True
b. False
Reticular Connective Tissue:
Resembles areolar connective tissue, but the fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers
Form a network along which fibroblasts called reticular cells are scattered.
Reticular
fibers
are widely distributed in the body, but reticular tissue is limited to certain sites.
Forms a labyrinth-like stroma, or internal framework, that support many free blood cells (largely lymphocytes) in lymph nodes, the spleen, and red bone marrow.
#13B48621 ... I need to see you following class to manually register your iclicker!
#13B48621 ... I need to see you following class to manually register your iclicker!
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