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Information Systems

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Shayan Ali

on 29 April 2015

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Transcript of Information Systems

Information Systems
An Input device is anything which is used to enter data into a computer. The most commonly used used input devices on a computer are the keyboard and mouse, these are the most basic types of input devices but are also the mos essential to a computer at the same time. The keyboard is used for essential functions, most importantly the delete and enter functions. The mouse was later adopted then the keyboard when GUI's (Graphic User Interface) were introduced, offering a new way to interact with computers besides the traditional keyboard. Some other common input devices include touchpad, touch screen, stylus, scanner and speech recognition.

Processing takes place when data is manipulated from input in order to make meaningful information, output. Processing involves a number of different stages, such as sorting, searching, calculating and graphing. Without processing all information would just remain the same in output as when it was at the input stage. Data can not be processed by itself, each program requires unique software in order for the processing unit to do exactly what actions must be carried out. All processing done in a computer is executed by the CPU (central processing unit). These processors are not all the same, the main difference in them being the speed. Depending on the quality and make of a processor determines its overall performance. Leading computer brands tend to use the latest processors since they are faster and more power efficient then previous generations. AMD and Intel are two of the most well recognised CPU manufacturers, Intel CPU's however offer a more high end experience to users compared to AMD processors which a used generally for low end or budget computers.
Intel CPU
An output device is hardware which is designed to display data which has been processed or stored on a computer. The most essential output device on a computer is the monitor. On your average PC it is essentially impossible to use machine without having it paired up to a monitor. This is because a computer is generally used for productivity and viewing media, for example it would be very difficult/impossible to edit a spreadsheet or watch a movie on a computer unless you had a monitor. A monitor also comes in different sizes depending on your need, it can range from 7inches all the up to 55inches. Monitors also consist of different qualities such as your standard resolution, Full HD and 4K (Ultra HD). Depending on a persons specific need for a monitor indicates which setup would suit them most and save the most money. For example if you are generally only surfing the web or using some basic productivity software a standard resolution or Full HD monitor should be fine. Whereas is you are looking to play high-end games or intensive Photoshop and video editing a Full HD or 4k (Ultra HD) monitor may be best suited. In either case a screen size should be chosen depending on what the user feels most comfortable with. Other commonly used output devices are speakers, printers, projectors and headphones.
A computer storage device is any type of hardware that stores data. Storage space and memory are a necessity for computers in order to run programs and store files. The are many different types of memory and storage, each having their own benefits.
Hard Disk Drive
A hard disk drive is a data storage device. A hard drive consists of components kept inside an air tight casing. An internal hard drive is placed in a computers drive bay and is connected to the motherboard and is powered by a connection to the power supply unit. Information stored on a hard disk drive is stored magnetically, so if a computer wanted to read information off a hard drive it would read the magnetic polarities off the spinning disk. The information the computers reads is in binary code which is then processed by the computer. Information the computer writes onto the hard drive is also in binary form. Hard drives are not always constrained to being just fixed inside a computer, external hard drives are also available. Essentially an external hard drive is the same as an internal hard drive except it has a stronger and more protective casing around it to protect it from bumps. An external hard drive can be used to make a backup of your internal hard drive or to simply just expand your storage to allow for more data. It connects to the computer using a simple U.S.B port.
Internal Hard Drive
External Hard Drive
RAM (Random Access Memory) is used for computer data storage, this storage is only temporary however and used to run the computer's OS and programs. RAM isn't used for storage when the computer has been turned off, which is what makes it different to a hard disk drive. RAM is used to find information very quickly and does so by finding it in a random order. It is used directly by the computers CPU which is why it must be very quick. RAM uses intergrated circuits for its storage so the cost to produce per gigabyte is much higher then a conventional hard drive. This is why most computers have only 2-8 gigabytes of RAM but have hundreds of gigabytes of storage on a hard drive.
RAM Sticks
USB Flash Drive
A USB flash drive is a small portable storage device which uses flash memory technology to store data, essentially acting like a portable hard drive. The whole point of a USB flash drive is to transfer data between different computers, it can also be used as a form of storage expansion but for that purpose an external hard drive is most commonly used. A USB is normally small enough to be attached to a key chain and is surrounded by a casing to protect it from damage. It is connected to a computer by plugging it into the computer's USB port, and usually requires no software installation to begin using. A main benefit of a USB is that it does not require any external power to work, it uses power which is being fed through the computer's USB port. A USB flash drive can be found in many different capacities, in the modern day ranging from 2GB all the way up to 512GB, with 1TB flash drives also beginning to role out in the near future. Most common USB flash drives are the USB 2.0 generations but in recent years a new 3.0 standard has become common. The main advantage of this new generation is the increase in read and write speed. The highest achievable speed possible by a USB 2.0 is 50MBps while USB 3.0 has average speeds of 250MBps with the capability of going much higher. The convenience of a large amount of storage in such a small package is what eventually led to the downfall of the USB's predecessor, the compact disk.
Kingston DataTraveler HyperX Predator 1TB USB 3.0 Flash Drive
Compact Disk
A compact disk (CD) is referred to as an optical storage device. The CD goes inside a computers Optical Drive which uses a laser to burn data on to the CD's surface, the same laser beam is also used to read data off the CD. A standard CD has a capacity of approximately 650MB, which is significantly low compared to a USB Flash Drive. Compact disks come in two main forms, CD-ROM and CD-RW. A CD-ROM has read only memory, this means data can only be written onto it once regardless of whether the disk still has more storage left. It can still be used an endless amount of times to read data off it from a computer, this makes it a popular choice for companies putting music onto the disk which could then not be copied or altered. A CD-RW disk is the same except for the convenience of being able to burn data onto the disk over and over again. The main advantage of CD's is they are cheap to produce, however the cons far outweigh its practicality. In modern times the CD has been hugely out of favor to the USB. The main reason for this is a USB is much more user friendly. A USB can overcome the challenges of everyday life with its durable casing and small footprint. The most important reason however being the large capacities USB's are available in whereas a conventional CD is no where near today's consumer needs in storage capacity. With USB's becoming cheaper by the day and already rivaling the price of CD's, the CD's price point isn't really much of selling point anymore. Where previously optical drives were in all premium laptops and computers, new laptops no longer have them because of the bulky parts required and lack of consumer need, instead opting for the much more faster and compact USB ports, allowing the laptops to be much more skinny and sleek. It will only be a matter of time before the Compact Disk looses its place in technology altogether like its famous predecessor, the floppy disk.
Compact Disk
Cloud Storage
With advancements in technology, more specifically things like internet speed and accessibility, cloud storage was given birth. Of all ways of storing data cloud storage is the most recent and modern. It is basically a way to store, coordinate and protect data in a virtual cloud which can be accessed through multiple users. The way it works is when a user uploads data to their account it is being downloaded onto its provider's servers. When you wish to access that data the server acknowledges this request and sends the data back to the user through an internet connection. All data put on the cloud is uploaded using internet and can then later be viewed using internet or saving the data from the cloud on a device for offline accessibility. The main advantage of this storage system is that you can use multiple devices to upload and view data, it is as simple as signing in to your account on a web browser or supported application. Also it eliminates the struggle of carrying flash drives and external hard drives everywhere. The main disadvantages of this however are that in order to work seamlessly, a strong and high speed internet connection is needed, which may be difficult to obtain all the time. Also while there is encryption on the data, hackers are always a threat and when successful, can steal your data. Some of the most popular providers of cloud storage include Dropbox, Google Drive, OneDrive and Apple iCloud. To attract customers most providers include a complementary amount of storage for free for signing up with its service, this is usually anywhere between 5-10GB. After that if a higher capacity of data is desired then users have a number of different monthly subscription plans which vary in capacity and price. Each provider will have their own benefits and disadvantages so its up to the individual user on which service they decide is best for them.
Computer communication is the transmission of data from one computer to another, or from one device to another. Communication between computers became huge when internet was created. Before that another form of communication which was popular was done by something besides a computer, a phone. Connecting to satellites phones were able to call other phones from anywhere around the world, given a satellite signal was apparent. Internet came afterward, which began a new era in communication. Like never before people around the world could use the computer communicate with other users. Services such as e-mail and chat rooms were among the most popular of these by the everyday user. The biggest advantage of the internet was for the first time people who had a computer with internet access could get the latest news in real time. Previously the access of vital news was restricted to newspapers which were only published once a day and the news on T.V which was on for a certain time a day. As technology advanced communication between computers became more mainstream and easier. Popular services such as Skype were introduced, which took online chatting to the next level by introducing video and audio in real time. Even with all this communication available, people were still confined to sitting at home on their computer to enjoy a range of communication services rather then just calling and texting on phones. That is when smartphones we introduced and were an instant hit with consumers and revolutionized the mobile industry and communication as a whole, more specifically the Apple iPhone. Although not the first to use technology such as WIFI and 3G, the iPhone is what really utilized these technologies to their full potential and made them recognized throughout the world. People were all of a sudden able to do the same thing they could do on computers and more on the go with a small, portable device which could connect to WIFI when at home and 3G when out. Communication is at the core of everything being produced today, with household appliances such as lights, fridges, powerpoints and many more all being connected to WIFI for remote control with their respective smartphone apps. Ultimately communication is the way the future is headed
Computer Communication
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