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Transcript of Substance Abuse
White males have a higher marijuana usage than African Americans and Hispanics, same go for white females to African American and Hispanic females.
College Students (14.7% to 25.3%)
Whites-15.2% to 24.6%
Hispanics - 14.4% to 27.8%
African Americans - 13.5% to 28.8%
Double ABCX Model
-"When alcohol emerges in early phase, it has preemptive power as a developmental issue."
-"Members of early-phase families are powerfully influenced by the families they have been members of."
-"Early-phase families have many options available to them as they respond to the alcohol-based challenges that arise during this juncture in their development."
-2.5 million people die per year.
-"Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, and can affect the way the brain looks and works. These disruptions can change mood and behavior, and make it harder to think clearly and move with coordination" (NIAAA)
-If the male is the alcoholic, 9/10 women will stay.
-If the women is the alcoholic, 1/10 men will stay.
American Psychological Association
-Increased prevalence of illnesses and domestic violence.
-Problems with social adjustment.
-The relationship with the drug using person.
-Problems with family cohesion.
-Problems with enmeshment.
-Behavioral problems with children.
Alcoholism In the Family (Ackerman)
- 4 phases of family responses.
- In this phase the family tends to go into denial, coping strategies, and social disengagement.
-Approach family members with caution.
-Denial allows alcoholism to continue.
*Systemic: Entire system denies the existence of a problem.
*Protection Against Exposure: Not speaking about the person instead sheltering oneself from the situation.
Coping Strategies: Verbal & Behavioral
*Communication with the alcoholic about alcoholism.
*Usually makes the situation worse.
*Increases the family anxiety.
*Addressing that their is a problem is the best thing.
*Hiding or refusing to buy alcohol.
*Staying away from home.
*Ignoring the alcoholic.
-Family begins to "de-center" itself from alcoholism.
-They begin to take an active interest in themselves.
-Realize they cannot deny the problem.
* Need for help
*They are not responsible for the problem.
*Realize help is available.
* "go on with" normal family activities.
-Is separation the only answer now.
-Polarization: Family members withdrawal from each other and are often forced to choose sides.
COAs (Tetyana Parson)
-Children of Alcoholics
-Low self esteem
-Fears of abandonment
-May feel responsible for the problem
-Problems in schools
-Stressful environment at home prevents them from studying.
-Hard to build relationships with teachers and classmates.
-Stealing, lying, fighting, and truancy.
-Not that many families reach this phase.
-Sobriety: Making sure the alcoholic sober.
-Dry drunk: The alcoholic is sober, but other problem linger, and remain unsolved.
*Physical: Stops receiving and giving invitations for social interaction.
*Emotional: Is a decline in positive emotional relationships. Some become "non-feeling" to minimize feeling to prevent pain.
Bennett, Reiss, Steinglass (1993, p.107-140) Developing an Alcoholic Family.
Nonalcoholic Family Identity
-Brian and Jennie Clark
-Brian was raised in an alcoholic family.
-When Brain married Jenny, he took the complete antithesis approach with his new family.
-He would not tolerate noise; instead he preferred peace and quiet.
-In sum, the origin of the family can decide the path of how one decides to tolerate alcohol.
Unresolved Alcoholic Family Identity
-Ted and Karen were married with two different perspectives to drinking.
-Karen grew up in an alcoholic family and knew her limitations when consuming alcohol.
-Ted's lifestyle-job, work, friends, activities- lead him to engage in alcohol consumption.
-Karen knew this would result in a divorce in the future. Ted, however, does not really want to change his habits.
Alcoholic Family Identity
-Both Jeff and Peggy came from alcoholic backgrounds.
-Both began to drink at an early age which effected them into their relationship.
-They decided to move away for a year and see if their was any change in their lifestyle.
-Now matter how far they seemed to get away, alcohol continued to revolve around their lives.
Interview: Betty Sahranavad
-What its like to live with an alcoholic.
Introduce us to your marriage
What/who did you have available?
When did you finally say "enough is enough?"
Why didn't you just leave him?
-Tobacco use has been estimated to kill about 6 million people each year
-Cigarettes are used for social events in adolescent years but once the addiction has been achieved, cigarettes become a dependency.
-Cigarettes are a common stress reliever.
-It is ironic because while the mind may feel calmed and a sense of euphoria is only an illusion
-It actually causes more stress to your body. High blood and heart pressure
-American Indians 31.5%
-African Americans 19.4%
Marijuana Abuse (Background)
Marijuana also known as weed, grass, pot reefer, and the scientific term Cannabis Sativa is the 2nd most widely used drug in the United States. Over 30 million Americans have use Marijuana at least once in their lives. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the drug in marijuana that causes the physiological effects. Marijuana has been around since the 1920s. It came to the United States with Mexican immigrants then and soon spreaded to the black and white jazz musicians. Marijuana is usually thought of as the stepping stone to more serious drugs.
Dry mouth and throat
Impaired motor skills
Lack of concentration
Lack of comprehension
Reduced short-term memory
Symptoms of Use
Increased heart rate
Damage to lungs
Damage the pulmonary system
Irregular or unreal sensory perception
Decreased problem solving abilities
Enhanced feelings of pleasure, anxiety and thoughts
Increased tiredness and relaxation
Effects of Marijuana Use
Should Marijuana be legal???
There has been many debates on whether Marijuana should be legalized or not since it has came to the United States. Marijuana was first unwanted because it came with Mexican immigrants who were also unwanted. Soon after the National Firearms Act, a marijuana transfer tax became law. Around the time of the Marijuana Tax Act in the 1930s, scientific publications came out that marijuana had negative effects and contributed in major crimes. However, scientists then could not find any health problems related to marijuana. After many debates back and forth on how and if marijuana contributed to crimes or not, in 1977 it was finally legalized that a person can have a ounce of marijuana on their person. But with this legalization punishments of violating the rule became harsher.
Statistical Facts of Marijuana General Usage
60% of all drug users say that they use only marijuana
20% of marijuana users use another illicit drug.
18 million Americans including children ort using Marijuana
In 1994, more than 134,564,000 Americans were treated for marijuana abuse.
95% of all serious drug users have used Marijuana.
Smoking Ads and Stress
Michelle S. * 22yrs
-How old were you when you first smoked a cigarette?
-Where were you when you first smoked?
-Were you alone or with other people?
-How did you get a hold of the cigarettes and what made you want to try it?
-Did you like it?
-So, essentially you tried it because you were with friends and it seemed appealing and fun?
-You're continuing to smoke, obviously, but why?
-In general, family origin all refers back to how the family of the wife or husband conducted themselves.
-Depending if the original family were alcoholics, it runs the risk of the new family conforming to becoming alcoholics or becoming a non-alcoholic family.
Effects on Self and Others
-Obviously, if you smoke you're hurting yourself physically
-Secondhand smoking is common and it affects the people you smoke around
-Not seen as critical because it is not direct but should be taken very serious
-May not be seen as an issue when first starting but addiction and dependency develop
-age yourself faster, possibly stunt your growth, heart disease, lung cancer, death
Marijuana no matter the time it is most common among men. Males are 3 times more likely to use marijuana than females.
Adult male rates is twice as much as females.
Males are 70% more likely to use marijuana than females.
In Native Americans there is no real difference in the use of marijuana between males and females. (16% of males to 14% of females)
Hispanics 9.2 % and 8.9%
Non-Hispanic blacks 8% females and 14% males
Non-Hispanic white 7% to 11%
Asians and pacific Islanders 2% to 8%
South Americans 4.2% to 13%
Marijuana Stats for Gender and Ethnicity