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amy norman

on 3 September 2013

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BIO 111-900 2013 FA
Amy Norman
Concept Map

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Introduction: Themes in the study of life
Theme 1: New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy
Biology is studied on many different levels ranging from very large to very small. The levels are as follows:
includes most land, water, and atmosphere up to several km.
All living organisms and the non-living material life depends on in a given region
The different living organisms, or species, inhabiting an ecosystem.
Each of the individuals of a given species living in a community.
Any single living thing, regardless of size.
A body part comprised of two or more tissues which carries out a specific function within an organism. In complex organisms, organs often work together to perform a task; these are called organ systems.
Within an organism, groups of similar cells are called tissues.
Known as the building blocks, cells are the smallest unit that can perform all the functions of life.
meaning "little organs," these are the parts that comprise a cell.
Any structure made up of two or more atoms
As we zoom in and out on the biologic scope, things begin behaving differently. It is very important to keep in mind that biology is essentially one big system.
Theme 2: Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy
Organisms and their environments are continuously interacting to exchange energy and chemicals. Each is affected by the other.
Theme 3: Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization.
This statement addresses the way a living thing takes on the shape that makes it easiest to perform its function. For example, many plant seeds have a hard, waxy coating. This allows the seed to maintain a dormant state until is reaches an environment suitable for germination.
Theme 4: Cells are an organism's basic units of structure and function.
The behavior of cells determines the behavior of the organism in which it exists. All cells have these characteristics in common: the presence of DNA and an external membrane which acts as a barrier. Cells which have distinct subdivisions of organelles, including the nucleus, are called "eukaryotic," whereas cells in which there are no organelles, and the genetic material is not enclosed in a membrane, are known as "prokaryotic" cells.
Theme 5: The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA.
DNA is the substance of genes. These genes hold the information that dictates a cell's function. This collection of instructions within an organism is called the genome.
Theme 6: Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems
This is the way cells monitor and determine their action.
+ Positive Feedback
This occurs when the resultant chemical of a process causes that process to speed up. The books gives the example of platelets accumulating around a wound to stop bleeding. The clotting process outputs a chemical which attracts more platelets to the area.
- Negative Feedback
Negative feedback occurs when the resulting chemical of a process slows down or stops the process from continuing. The feeling of fullness after eating is negative feedback; As it becomes full of ingested food, your stomach sends chemical signals to your brain to stop the sensation of hunger, telling the organism (you) to stop eating.
The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life.
The taxonomy system is a way to classify like organisms into groups which branch from three main categories, called a Domain, to approximately 1.8 million distinct groups, called Species.
Of the three domains, two (Bacteria and Archaea) consist of prokaryotic organisms. Domain Eukarya is where humans fall in the taxonomy. It is made up of all the organisms composed of eukaryotic cells.
Despite the vast diversity of life, every living organism has DNA in common.
Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection
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