Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
OCR A2 Attitudes
Transcript of OCR A2 Attitudes
We acquire most of our attitudes from listening to and copying significant others.
In order to become part of a particular group/team it is important to us to hold and demonstrate the normal attitudes of that group, so we therefore acquire attitudes which correspond to that group.
E.g. We all support Man Utd. We all dislike tennis.
How would you change the negative attitude below?
Cognitive: - I think football is a rubbish sport & for girls
Affective: - I don't enjoy football
Behavioural: - I don't play football
4 key elements....
When attitude components conflict dissonance occurs.
By changing a component...
- You could educate the person about the large number of young, physically fit males taking part in the sport and also about the strength, flexibility and stamina it develops.
- You could provide them with positive experiences. Take them to watch a competition or try a fun bounce. During this time they must experience success and their performance must be positively reinforced.
- They might not wish to try trampolining because they are scared. In which case use the tumbling belt and give them lots of praise and reinforcement. You might have to use persuasive communication to alter their behaviour in the first instance.
Overall attitudes can be changed.
Critical evaluation of attitudes
Attitudes in general are poor predictors of behaviour
Dishman (1986) - a persons positive attitudes and beliefs don't always mean that they will commit to an exercise programme.
Fishbein (1974) - When attitudes become more specific they are more likely to predict behaviour.
A more accurate predictor of behaviour occurs when a person makes a clear commitment or intent.
3 Components of Attitude
Create an example for
the cognitive component
Believing that exercise will make you healthy
Create an example for the affective component
Feeling that you enjoy going swimming
Create an example for the behavioural component
Actually going swimming
Find at least 1 example in the media of a 'prejudice' and an example of a 'stereotype'
You might research:
Online search engines
Personal experiences of your own or your friends
OCR A2 PE
Beliefs & knowledge about the attitude object
or... a person knows that jogging 3 times a week is psychologically beneficial
Feelings or an emotional response towards attitude
or.... jogging is a pleasurable activity
How a persons responds or behaves towards an attitude object.
e.g. the individual will continue to jog three times in the week.
Summarising TASK 3
Read the paragraph about attitudes and behaviour and summarise what it says!
Using the paragraph and your own knowledge note what causes attitudes to be formed positively and negatively - BE SPECIFIC....
Stress Release After Competing
Learned from Enjoyable Experiences
Learned from Influence of Significant Others
Learned from Role Models
Attitudes can be positive or negative
FORMATION OF ATTITUDES
FORMATION OF ATTITUDES
Stress in Competition
Lack of Ability
A Bad Experience e.g. an injury
Influence of Significant Others
Negative attitudes can be changed to positive attitudes by…
Attribute success internally
Use role models
Use positive reinforcement and rewards
Point out the benefits of exercise
Allow early success
Make it fun when training
‘Verbal Persuasion’ from a ‘perceived expert’
2. One person reads the paragraph on persuasive communication
3. The other reads about cognitive dissonance
1. I will briefly introduce two concepts
4. Share with each other what you have read and add notes as required
5. Link your learning by completing TASK 6
Bringing it all Together
1 Person is a trait theorist
1 Person is a social learning theorists
1 Person is an interactionist theorists
Prepare a 2 minute explanation of why you think that people behave as they do
Use personality and attitudes theory
1. Prejudice 1 mark for example
Racism/ sexism/ ageism/ gender/ officials
3 marks from 3 of:
Peer group pressure
Bad past experience over valued
1. Give an example of a prejudice that may occur in sport and show how such a prejudice may have been formed. (4 marks)
the person must be consistent within
the person must be consistent between different elements
cognitive dissonance occurs when elements of a person’s attitude conflict (within one of the components, or between components)
example: the sportsman who knows that instrumental aggression is wrong, but who believes that this sort of aggression is necessary in order to win
example: the smoker who likes smoking, but who knows that smoking is bad for health
ATTITUDE CHANGE BY COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
It is dangerous for old people to exercise as they are too weak and frail
women should not take part in in strength and contact sports because they are too weak
Define prejudice and stereotypes; describe its impact in sport and suggest ways to counteract prejudice in sport
Explain the different forms that prejudice can take relating to specific examples from sport
Discriminate between an attitude and prejudice and apply specifically to own sport
has a positive physical self-concept
satisfaction from participation in sport
believe sport promotes health
success at sport
willing to try new activities
encouraged by significant others
opportunity to participate
had negative experiences at sport
have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult
find sport frustrating
unlikely to participate in sport
have a negative self-concept
find sport boring
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT
RESOLUTION OF THE DISSONANCE
in the aggression example, the sportsperson resolves the conflict (the cognitive dissonance) by telling himself that it is OK to be aggressive because the opposition is doing it also
attitudes can be changed by a coach telling the person that skilful people do not need to play like a thug, and therefore there is no need for aggression
participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams
the black quarterback in American Football
the black sprinter
the white skier or swimmer
Prejudice is a
of a person, group, or situation
usually based on
which reinforces stereotypes
women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events
Attitudes are directed towards....
lead us to
positively or negatively
The message must
be balanced between emotion and logic
be balanced between pros and cons
The person must
the message being given
The coach/persuader must
ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION
Fitting In With The Group
Social Learning Influence of Significant Others
“A preconceived opinion based on a faulty and inflexible generalisation”
us to behave in a certain way towards them
Attitudes tend to be
can change or be changed
Prejudice in Sport
What's your attitude...
a) Towards cross country running?
b) Towards Donald Trump?
c) Towards Russia's involvement in the Winter Olympics?
What emotions are evoked?
What are your thoughts/opinions?
How is your behaviour influenced?
TASK 1: Create your own example
TAKE IT FURTHER: How does the prejudice influence behaviour?
The situation must
be one the person feels comfortable enough to listen in
ideally be on neutral ground
enable conversation to take place
SWAP PAPER AND MARK SOMEONE ELSES
E.g. One member of your group begins to shout abuse at the opposing spectators. You, your friends (and surrounding spectators) join in to fit in with the behaviour of the group.
A belief held by a collection of people about traits shared by a certain category of people
TASK 5: Recap questions