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OCR A2 Attitudes

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Geraint Davies

on 27 October 2015

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Transcript of OCR A2 Attitudes

Attitudes
Definition:
“Prejudice is an extreme or strongly held attitude (resistant to change) held prior to direct experience.”

“An antipathy either felt or expressed based on faulty or inflexible generalisations directed towards a certain group or an individual who is part of a group.” (Allport, 1954)

• This is a pre-judgement of a person or a group or situation even before certain behaviour is present
• It is judgement based on small amount of experience and inadequate information
• Some judgement based on information that is incorrect but is passed on to reinforce stereotypes and therefore prejudice
Prejudice
E.g. A female golfer finds it hard to gain full
membership at a golf club
Prejudices are formed by:
• The social learning effect. Learning from significant others
• Wishing to fit in with the social norms of the group
• Bad past experiences which are over valued
• Media pressure
• Fear
E.g. One member of your group begins to shout abuse at the opposing spectators. You, your friends (and surrounding spectators) join in to fit in with the behaviour of the group.
To overcome prejudice:
As a coach or leader in sport you may prevent or help to dispel prejudice in the following ways:
• Use persuasive communication
• Use cognitive dissonance
• Use role models to re-educate
• Mix abilities within your group
• Use punishment for prejudicial behaviour
• Re-educate with the media
• Reinforce fair behaviour
Attitudes are learned from significant others either explicitly through instruction from teachers, parents or coach, or through social learning. (observation, imitation)
We acquire most of our attitudes from listening to and copying significant others.
In order to become part of a particular group/team it is important to us to hold and demonstrate the normal attitudes of that group, so we therefore acquire attitudes which correspond to that group.
E.g. We all support Man Utd. We all dislike tennis.
Socialisation
Changing attitudes
Persuasive communication
Cognitive dissonance

How would you change the negative attitude below?

Cognitive: - I think football is a rubbish sport & for girls

Affective: - I don't enjoy football

Behavioural: - I don't play football
4 key elements....
Persuader
Message
Recipients
Situation
When attitude components conflict dissonance occurs.
By changing a component...
Cognitive:
- You could educate the person about the large number of young, physically fit males taking part in the sport and also about the strength, flexibility and stamina it develops.

Affective:
- You could provide them with positive experiences. Take them to watch a competition or try a fun bounce. During this time they must experience success and their performance must be positively reinforced.

Behavioural:
- They might not wish to try trampolining because they are scared. In which case use the tumbling belt and give them lots of praise and reinforcement. You might have to use persuasive communication to alter their behaviour in the first instance.
Overall attitudes can be changed.
Critical evaluation of attitudes
Attitudes in general are poor predictors of behaviour
Dishman (1986) - a persons positive attitudes and beliefs don't always mean that they will commit to an exercise programme.
Fishbein (1974) - When attitudes become more specific they are more likely to predict behaviour.
A more accurate predictor of behaviour occurs when a person makes a clear commitment or intent.
Cognitive
Affective
Behavioural
3 Components of Attitude
Your thoughts

Create an example for
the cognitive component
For Example
Believing that exercise will make you healthy
Your Feelings
Create an example for the affective component
For Example
Feeling that you enjoy going swimming

Create an example for the behavioural component
For Example
Actually going swimming
What

you
DO!
Likes
Dislikes
Connundrums
Connections
Starter
Homework Task
For next lesson
Find at least 1 example in the media of a 'prejudice' -
BRING IT TO LESSON

-
HARD COPY

You might research:
Newspapers
BBC Sport
Online search engines
The news on TV
Personal experiences of your own or your friends
OCR A2 PE
Beliefs & knowledge about the attitude object
or... a person knows that jogging 3 times a week is psychologically beneficial
Feelings or an emotional response towards attitude
or.... jogging is a pleasurable activity
How a persons responds or behaves towards an attitude object.
e.g. the individual will continue to jog three times in the week.
Summarising TASK 3
Read the paragraph about attitudes and behaviour and summarise what it says!
Attitude Formation
TASK 4
Using the paragraph and your own knowledge note what causes attitudes to be formed positively and negatively - BE SPECIFIC....
Stress Release After Competing

Learned from
beliefs

Learned from Enjoyable Experiences

Learned from Influence of Significant Others

Learned from Role Models

The Media

Attitudes can be positive or negative

FORMATION OF ATTITUDES
FORMATION OF ATTITUDES
Stress in Competition

Lack of Ability

A Bad Experience e.g. an injury

Influence of Significant Others

The Media

NEGATIVE

Negative attitudes can be changed to positive attitudes by…

Attribute success internally

Use role models

Use positive reinforcement and rewards

Point out the benefits of exercise

Allow early success

Make it fun when training

‘Verbal Persuasion’ from a ‘perceived expert’

CHANGING ATTITUDES
POSITIVE

TASK 1
TASK 5
Peer teaching!
2. One person reads the paragraph on persuasive communication
3. The other reads about cognitive dissonance
1. I will briefly introduce two concepts
4. Share with each other what you have read and add notes as required
5. Link your learning by completing TASK 6
Bringing it all Together
1 Person is a trait theorist
2 are social learning theorists
2 are interactionist theorists
Prepare a 2 minute explanation of why you think that people behave as they do
Use personality and attitudes theory
attitudes are poor predictors of behaviours
social and situational factors can significantly intervene

for example, an individual might like the idea of being physically fit but do nothing about it (Dishman 1986)

CRITICAL EVALUATION OF ATTITUDES

USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS
indicators such as
blood pressure
skin conductivity
brain activity (ECG)
can be interpreted to indicate telling the truth
about an attitude object

measurable

independent of observer
but takes a long time to set up requiring special apparatus

EVALUATION or MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES

1. Prejudice 1 mark for example
Racism/ sexism/ ageism/ gender/ officials
3 marks from 3 of
Social learning
Media
Peer group pressure
Historical influences
Bad past experience over valued

EXAM ANSWERS

1. Give an example of a prejudice that may occur in sport and show how such a prejudice may have been formed. (4 marks)

EXAM QUESTIONS

On your white boards
1. what is prejudice?
2. give one example
3. how can prejudice be changed?

Homework – complete the 3 questions

Summary and Homework

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
the person must be consistent within
cognitive
affective
behavioural components

the person must be consistent between different elements

cognitive dissonance occurs when elements of a person’s attitude conflict (within one of the components, or between components)
example: the sportsman who knows that instrumental aggression is wrong, but who believes that this sort of aggression is necessary in order to win
example: the smoker who likes smoking, but who knows that smoking is bad for health
ATTITUDE CHANGE BY COGNITIVE DISSONANCE

participation of the disabled in physical activity

older age groups interest and ability at sport

NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES

women in strength, endurance and contact sports

SPORT STEREOTYPES
Use the word bank to complete the basic definition of prejudice
TASK 1
ALL:
Define prejudice, describe its impact in sport and suggest ways to counteract prejudice in sport

MOST:
Explain the different forms that prejudice can take relating to specific examples from sport

SOME:
Discriminate between an attitude and prejudice and apply specifically to own sport

Lesson Outcomes
What’s worse sexism or racism?
Welcome
Please make yourselves comfy
when attitudes become more specific, they are more likely to predict behaviour (Fishbein 1974)
for example, an individual wants to compete in the 2-man bobsleigh in the Olympic Games
this attitude indicates intent

behavioural intention is determined by attitudes toward the behaviour
and the social norms that relate to the behaviour (Gill 2000)

CRITICAL EVALUATION OF ATTITUDES

POSITIVE ATTITUDES
has a positive physical self-concept
satisfaction from participation in sport
believe sport promotes health
success at sport
willing to try new activities
encouraged by significant others
participates regularly
opportunity to participate


NEGATIVE ATTITUDES
had negative experiences at sport
have lifestyle which makes regular sport difficult
find sport frustrating
lack encouragement
unlikely to participate in sport
have a negative self-concept
find sport boring

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT

Fabien Barthez (ex Man U goalie and Soccer World Cup winner) seen smoking!!

RESOLUTION OF THE DISSONANCE
in the smoking example, the sportsperson resolves the dissonance by convincing himself that a few fags here or there won’t make any difference, and continuing to smoke throughout training
attitudes can be changed by pointing out how much more efficient the lungs are without smoking, therefore it should be abandoned

ATTITUDE CHANGE BY COGNITIVE DISSONANCE

RESOLUTION OF THE DISSONANCE
in the aggression example, the sportsperson resolves the conflict (the cognitive dissonance) by telling himself that it is OK to be aggressive because the opposition is doing it also
attitudes can be changed by a coach telling the person that skilful people do not need to play like a thug, and therefore there is no need for aggression

Group 4 = Use of role models

Group 4 = persuasive communication

Group 3 = cognitive dissonance

You have an example of a prejudiced attitude on your desk – you are going to work as a group using one of the methods below to change that attitude – you may need your summary from lesson 14 hand out

Group 2 = persuasive communication

Group 1 = cognitive dissonance

Changing Prejudiced Attitudes

participation of particular ethnic groups in specific sports or positions within teams

examples:
the black quarterback in American Football
the black sprinter
the white skier or swimmer

NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES

PREJUDICE

PREJUDICE
prejudice is a prejudgement of a person, group, or situation
usually based on inadequate information
or inaccurate or biased information
which reinforces stereotypes

example:
women are often excluded from male dominated sports clubs or events

Record any examples of prejudice that you find on your hand out

TASK 2: Come up with a definition for prejudice

Task
Please work together to think of examples of prejudice, and share your examples with the rest of the class

See if you can find examples of:
1 = sexism
2 = racism
3 = homophobia
4 = other

Attitudes are directed towards....
objects
people
situations
combinations of
beliefs
and
feelings

lead us to
think
and
behave
positively or negatively

ATTITUDES
the message must
be clear
be unambiguous
be balanced between emotion and logic
be balanced between pros and cons

PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION
the person must
pay attention
understand
accept
retain
the message being given

the coach must
be expert
be trustworthy

ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION

Age

Race

Gender

Officials

Your Team

Bad Experience

Fitting In With The Group

The Media

Social Learning Influence of Significant Others

EXAMPLES

FORMED BY…

“Is an extreme attitude”
PREJUDICE
Helen Roscoe Photography

good attitudes are important?

QUESTIONNAIRES
only as good as the questions asked
measurable using
Thurstone scale
Likert scale
Osgood’s Semantic Differential Scale

BY OBSERVATION
related to actual events as they are happening
difficult to quantify or measure
open to interpretation by observer

EVALUATION or MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES

Starter
Attitude objects
This
predisposes
us to behave in a certain way towards them
Learned
or organised
through experience
Attitudes tend to be
deep seated
But
can change or be changed
Prejudice in Sport
Full transcript