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Mummification

Egypt Project
by

Susanne Johnson

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Mummification

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-0Ghd2JZ6w9w/UK57eDHOhMI/AAAAAAAABFU/-ilCL87MhHY/s400/Gold+Mask+Mummy+Cover+of+King+Psusennes+the+First.jpg Mummification What did ancient Egyptians use to make Burial Masks and Coffins? The less important people would usually be naturally preserved and buried by the desert, but if they were a little bit richer they would place them in a wooden coffin. If they were of higher standards, they were more likely to to be buried in a coffin made of stone, silver, and or gold. Instead of just one coffin they were usually placed in a series, one inside another.
The burial mask they wore was made of silver or gold, but was usually cartonnage. They were specialized to look like the person inside, but usually in younger years or without the flaws they didn't want. They were personalized with glass, stone, silver and gold to look more unique.
Both mask and coffin were decorated with amulets and magical charms. Some needing spells, and some not. In ancient Egypt, mummification was a religious process to preserve the body for their next life. While you probably have heard it was most often used to preserve more meaningful people, such as Pharaohs, it was also used to preserve less respected people. What is Mummification? http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Sh06gX2xum8/TMM0msgvm3I/AAAAAAAAAq0/OMruJ6bs_o0/s1600/1177_cropped_viscera_coffin.jpg http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/exhibitions/to_live_forever/images/37.14E_759-wide.jpg http://www.venusilluminated.com/Egyptianheader.jpg What are the Steps in Mummification? http://www2.si.umich.edu/chico/mummy/images/mouth2.gif In the process of mummification, there were steps that the priests and and embalmers would need to follow to mummify correctly. First, the priests would conduct spells and announce prayers to the body. Next, the embalmers would wash and put oils on the body so you couldn't smell the decaying. Third, embalmers removed organs through a small slit on the left side of the body, and placed them in Canopic Jars.( Stomach in the Jackal head; Duamutef, lungs in the Baboon head; Hapi, liver in the Human head; Imsety, and intestines in the Falcon head; Qebehsenuef.) Fourth, they would take out the brain through the nostrils with the Brain hook. Then the priests would place the body on a slanted bed, rub and fill it with natron salt, so that it would collect the moisture. After 40 days of using the natron salt to dehydrate the body, they would remove the salt and refill the body with either lichen, Nile mud, saw dust, or linen to give back it's normal shape. Lastly, they wrapped the body carefully with linen bandages, while putting dozens of magical charms and amulets in each layer. This 70 day long process preserved the body's for their next life. http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4141/4888580352_f02d9f8894_z.jpg http://www.dragonscale.com/uploads/7/3/8/4/7384059/9849086.jpg?431 What Tools did they have and use to Mummify Bodies? http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/images/reli38b.jpg http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/images/reli39b.jpg Materials Tools The Embalmers and Priests would need some tools and a few more materials, to mummify the bodies. For tools, they would need brain hooks, oil jars, funnels, and an Embalmer's knife. Brain hooks were used to crush the brain inside of the head, to reduce the size of the pieces so that they could pull them back out through the nostrils.Oil jars held oils, the funnel drained the brain, and the Embalmer's knife was used to make neat incisions, such as the one on the left side of the body to remove the internal organs. Some materials they would use were things such as lichen, sawdust, linen, and Nile mud, to restore the natural shape of the body after the internal organs were removed. Since the eyes were taken out, they would put wads of linen bandages in, and sometimes even onions to for- fill the empty space in the eye socket. One of the last materials they would use was Frankincense, an oil used to make the body smell fresher in its state of decaying. http://img.medscape.com/article/769/263/769263-fig3.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_fhVpDW9sV30/SaPIogxrRnI/AAAAAAAAEYc/FBHbrrf9cpM/s400/mummyRamses+I.jpg Why did they Mummify Bodies? http://img1.123freevectors.com/wp-content/uploads/animals_big/037_animals_animal-animals-feather-image-free-vector.jpg Ancient Egyptians would mummify bodies for many reasons. One is because of their religion. Afterlife was more valuable to them than their actual lives. Since it was important to preserve the precious bodies, they would place them in many layers of protection, and in tombs, to hide them from animals, insects, robbers, and the elements. They also believed that for the spirits to reuse their body, it needed to be complete. Internal organs beside them, in their Canopic jars, mummification done correctly, and everything they would need for their next life with them.
The last reason , was to identify who they were. Once your dead, you start decaying and you can't tell who it is by the profile. You won't decay with preserveratives like resin on you. They wanted to know who you were, and have your body ready for the next life. This is also why burial masks are so exclusive to each person, look like the corpse, and are decorated to the royalty's liking. http://www.touregypt.net/images/touregypt/masks2.jpg Each one is a burial mask, having individual characteristics. http://www.sofiatopia.org/maat/ipsusennes.jpg http://jacqqw.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/istockphoto_3656110-mummy-cartoon.jpeg Thanks for watching my presentation http://ktrmurali.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/media_httpithisislond_zkfkm-scaled600.jpg?w=243&h=324
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