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Transcript of TIMELINE
Tupinambá live along
coasts in groups of
100-1000. Further inland along
Amazon river are Mundurucú and
Yanamami in Amazon Basin.
1494 Treaty of Toresillas - Pope
grants large tract of land (including Rio) to
Portuguese along with right to "discover and
acquire" (official reason is to win converts) but
also makes it "acceptable" for missionaries
to enslave natives who rejected Christianity
1555 French Colonist occupy
Villegagnon Island off
coast of Rio
1628 Antonio Raposo Tavares - led 3000 and burned Jesuit Mission to ground in order to conquer slaves for Sao Paulo.
1775 marques de Pombal
outlaws "Indian" slavery
1500 - Portuguese ships land in
Brazil (Vera Cruz)
Beginning in 1551 Portugal
starts bringing African slaves
to Brazil. Rio is major port.
1570 (Tupi have been dying out) - Gov. Mem de Sa starts campaign to enslave natives from interior and bring them to coast. Bandeirantes (mixed race warriors conscripted to penetrate interior in search of slaves/gold) focus on Guaraní on Porder with Paraguay. Many of these slaves go to Sao Paulo to the south of Rio.
1565–67, bloody battles with French led by Mem de Sa's nephew (who is killed). After victory, Mem de Sa decides to settle new city at St. Januarius Hill (the location of Rio de Janeiro).
Mohommah Gardo Baquaqa: "We suffered very much for want of water, but was denied all we needed.... When any of us became refractory, his flesh was cut with a knife, and pepper or vinegar was rubbed in to make him peacable (!) I suffered, and so did the rest of us, very much from sea sickness at first, but that did not cause our brutal owners any trouble.... Some were thrown overboard before breath was out of their bodies; when it was thought any would not live they were got rid of in that way." Source: Conrad, Robert. E. Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil. p27
Scale of Brazilian slave trade:
"By 1685, before the traffic to North America had
begun, more slaves had already entered Brazil than
would ever reach the North American colonies, or its
successor, the United States."
Higher slave trade numbers in Brazil related to high mortality and lower reproduction on sugar plantations and mines - overseers working humans to death and then replacing with new slaves via transatlantic slave trade. In city, coffee carriers hardest worked - average life span only 8 years after being brought.
Middle Passage and connection
Quoted in Ramirez, Catherine S. Afrofuturism/Chicanafuturism: Fictive Kin
Octavia Butler's Parable of the Sower depicts post-apocalyptic descent of Southern California, evoking themes that deal directly with abduction, migration, and slavery tropes. The protagonist, Lauren Olamina, starts a new religion based on "change."
Imagined futures of Los Angeles:
18th and 19th cent slave labor in the city:
Slaves filled almost every niche of everyday life: Female slaves worked as cooks and waitresses in bars. Male slaves worked as coachmen, drivers, sedan chair porters, craftsmen, etc. Hundreds of thousands of slaves worked in homes shops and manufactories.
Chaste Portuguese high class women not expected to leave the house. "Slave women performed all the needed tasks in the public sphere, and slave and working class women were free to meet and converse with each other in the street." Although due to this freedom slave, mulatto, and poor white women treated as sexually available to men - stereotyped as having lower moral standards.
Women and sexuality in public:
Coffee carriers hardest worked - average life span only 8 years after being brought to Brazil [Meade, p47]
1871: Free Birth Law
1888 slavery abolished
1769 - Portolaamps with his soldados
at El Rio de Nuestra Señora la Reina de Los Angeles.
Native inhabitants Yang-na.
1965 Passage of Hart Cellar Act
changes the dynamics of immigration in LA - sudden influx of immigrants include both low skilled (undocumented) immigrants, mostly from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador as well as high-skilled (documented) immigrants, mostly from China, Korea, and India.
Starting in mid-1850s,
Los Angeles starts to
1910-1920 Second period of immigration in LA; this time midwestern protestants. Very different
from previous wave. Racist, suspicious of city and mixing.
1940s LA - Large wartime influx of black migrants from south. Roosevelt issues executive order to force hiring of blacks (otherwise denied jobs).
1908 - anti-Asian immigration laws lifted
precipitating huge influx of Japanese (largest single group of non-European immigrants.
1912: LA's Shenk rule
more than whites
Influx of poorer European immigrants to
1880-1920: period of immigration of
Japanese, Russians, Jewish to LA.
Relative mixing and small clusters in
Early 19th century begins a
period of racist Positivism
and social Darwinism and
anxieties about miscegenation
Between 1872 and 1949 also brought new
immigrants: Italians, Jewish, Arab. -->
Complicating elites' sense of racial identity.
1930s brought Fryere's "new race" based
on mixing-- later the myth of
"racial demoracy"would be critiqued
1872 - elites encourage immigration that
supports the "whitening" of Brazil and
miscegenation as "improvement" of blacks
Race in Another America p29
1890 - First Tournement of Roses. Featured a parade in the morning and various "public games", including foot races and tugs of war, the afternoon. Modeled after the Festival of Roses in Nice.
1898 - first national media coverage of Tournement of Roses. 1900 - first motion pictures of TOR shown nationally.
1902 - First Rose Bowl football game, Michigan routs Stanford. Mob of 8,000+ stampeded for 1,000 seats. Game abandoned until 1916
1923 -First game played in "The Rose Bowl" stadium. Capacity: 57,000. Cost: $272,298. Raised privately.
1962 - Rose Bowl becomes the first college football game to be telecast nationally in color.
1950 - Cleveland Rams move, bringing the NFL to town
1951-61 - The Battle of Chavez Ravine. Low-income Mexican-American residents fight the acquisition of their land to build Dodger Stadium, and the subsequent forced evictions.
1950 - Estádio do Maracanã opened
Built for 1950 World Cup, opened unfinished. Shattered capacity records for a football stadium at time of construction - 183,000. Renovations and expansion for 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics threatens nearby indigenous community.
1968 - Pele's 1000th Goal was a defining moment at Maracana and in the memories of residents.
1988 - Kirk Gibson's World Series walk-off home run is the defining moment at Dodger Stadium.
2014 and 2016 - Hosting the two most significant international athletic competitions, the World Cup and Summer Olympics, respectively. Tension over use of public funds for athletic facilities rather than social programs, not to mention corruption and overspending, leads to civil unrest.
2010 - USC football scandal becomes the poster child for malfeasance in modern college football. Promotes conversations about race, education, and poverty.
1994 - the city's two NFL teams leave for other cities
The Aliens, "Geigers" arrive. Their ship is aquatic, given that having seen the Earth from a distance for so long, the aliens calculate ownership of the seas as a true grip of the planet since the Earth is 70% ocean. Phallic tenticals extruding from the ship become errect when necessary, reaching to the sky to obtain and eject whatever transmissions necessary
are faceless thus
the premise of
are careful to hide
While on earth they are
on life-support through
their mask which also
operates as their media
system, like google glasses
but as a plague doctor mask.
Yet when it comes
time to experience
of a human, they
...Which snaps into
their very brain stem
so as to allow for
direct media input
Meanwhile other nations
in the world are putting on
and broadcasting their own
parades (knowing this to be
the best mode of direct
communication with the
aliens) as shows of their own
"prudishness" so as to avoid
prostitution of their bodies.
One example is the Japanese
"kitsune" or fox wedding
Alien's sit behind the
heads of their hosts like
Japanese haigorei spirits.
1915 Birth of a Nation
1927 The Jazz Singer is first talkie
(U.S. exports Black Face to the world)
Alien's derive erotic
pleasure from taking
on the bodies of others.
status is performed
by adorning bodies
of their hosts and their
1932 - Hosted Summer Olympics. Due to Great Depression, was the only city that bid for the honor, and less than half of the nations that participated in 1928 were able to send teams.
1984 - Hosted Summer Olympics
June 30, 2013 - Protesters clash with police during the Confederations Cup final match. Earlier that day, a group of demonstrators tried to storm a Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) building. In a separate protest, several thousand people marched on the Maracanã stadium banging drums. The protesters demanded free public transport, carrying placards reading "FIFA - you pay the bill". The demonstrators also called for an end to corruption and the resignation of the Rio State governor.
From the Washington Post, 3/22/2013:
RIO DE JANEIRO - Disorder broke out in the shadow of Rio de Janeiro's Maracana soccer stadium on Friday as riot police raided an old museum that authorities want razed ahead of the 2014 World Cup, but where a few indigenous people had squatted for years.
Officers in full riot gear stormed into the dilapidated complex just as a tense, hours-long standoff between the police and about two dozen Indians appeared near a peaceful conclusion.
The Indians had accepted the government's offer to leave the compound in exchange for land on which to build a new settlement in northern Rio de Janeiro and most had already left the site when the officers charged in, prompting fury among the Indians' supporters massed outside the building.
An elderly man in a feather headdress lay collapsed on the sidewalk after police pulled him kicking and screaming from the compound. Protesters and journalists were temporarily blinded after officers fired tear gas and pepper spray and detonated stun grenades in the thick of the crowd.
The Indian Museum has been at the center of a protracted legal battle over government plans to demolish it as part of renovations for soccer's 2014 World Cup. The nearby Maracana stadium will host the tournament's closing match, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Olympics, and officials have said they intend to turn the area around the stadium into a new parking lot, commercial center and expanded stadium exits.
Indians from across Brazil regarded the site as a safe place to stay when they came to Rio to pursue an education, sell trinkets in the streets or get medical treatment, and dozens of people regularly cycled in and out
Early 1990s - Raiders merchandise adopted by Gangsta Rap artists, then by street gangs nationally. Team tied to city's image as gang-ridden.
1895 - Clube de Regatas do Flamengo founded. Now nation's most popular football club.
1898 - Vasco de Gama football club founded by Portuguese residents. Sprang out of a rowing club, which was the most popular sport at the time. Still supported primarily by Portuguese community.
1923 - Vasco wins first Class A Metropolitan League championship, with a racially and socially diverse team. League pressures team to ban blacks, mullatos, and poor. Team refuses with "Resposta Historica" - Historical Response" letter, and is kicked out of the league.
Aesthetic of Hunger vs Cosmetic of Hunger
1904: Bangu football club is first to feature a black player, Francisco Carregal. Documented by journalist Mário Filho, who would later have Maracana offically named after him. Interesting how journalist, not player became national icon.
A colonizer's lens
Boys from Brazil Redux
The Big Empty
Repo Man, Friday, Mi Vida Loca, & Clueless
In The Future: The Truman "horror" Show
Cynical Attitude, bleak outlook
Pre-Colombian Chumash play
- a game very similar to field hockey.
From the Santa Barbara Natural History Museum:
During large ceremonial gatherings, an entire village might play against another, with as many as two or three hundred players on the field. The game required a square playing area of about 300 yards on a side. Each team had facing goal posts, and the players were armed with shinny sticks, much like hockey players. The object of the game was to put the small wooden ball through the opponent's goal post by striking the ball with great force. Women seldom got into fights during the game, but men often fought to blood. The Ventura Indians had a great reputation as shinny players. It was the custom for the winning side to give half of the money it won in betting to the chief of the village hosting the fiesta. In that way they helped to cover the costs of the ceremony.
n 1965, Glauber Rocha presented his political film manifesto “Eztétyka da fome” (“Aesthetics of Hunger”) in Italy. Linked to the Brazilian film movement known as cinema nôvo, Rocha was part of a generation of filmmakers across Latin America that understood cinema as a central weapon in revolutionary struggle. Key to Rocha’s film theory was the idea of hunger as a complex, contradictory cinematic mode of cultural practice. According to Rocha, films with an aesthetic of hunger “narrated, described, poeticized, discussed, analyzed, and stimulated the themes of hunger: characters eating dirt and roots, characters stealing to eat, characters killing to eat, characters fleeing to eat” (par. 10). But for Rocha, hunger is more than the prelude to starvation, it is a state of craving, of need, of desire.
Hosts are measured, drafted, traded and sold.
Among humans, hosts enjoy elite status, but are still subservient to aliens.