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HHD UNIT 3 AOS 1 Part 3 (SAC 2)

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Casey Hawley

on 7 April 2016

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Transcript of HHD UNIT 3 AOS 1 Part 3 (SAC 2)

UNIT 3 AOS 1 (PART 2)
"UNDERSTANDING AUSTRALIA'S HEALTH
NUTRITION AND THE NHPA's
Nutrition can decrease or increase the risk of a range of conditions identified within the NHPA's.

Having a balanced food intake is the key to maintaining an adequate diet and therefore reduce the risk of diet-related conditions

There are 6 categoreis of nutrients that are needed for optimal health
NUTRITION
OUTCOME
Discuss the role of the National Health Priority Areas (NHPA's) in improving Australia's health status"
The role of
nutrition
in
addressing
the following conditions recognised in the
NHPAs:
cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, colorectal cancer, obesity and osteoporosis, taking into account, where relevant, the
function
(as a determinant of health) and
major food sources
of protein, carbohydrate (including fibre), fats (mono, poly, saturated and trans), water, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and vitamin D.
CARBOHYDRATES
(Including Fibre)
PROTEIN
VITAMINS
MINERALS
KEY WORDS
KEY WORDS
KEY WORDS
KEY KNOWLEDGE/SKILL
Protein ----->
Amino Acids ----- Anaemia ----- legumes

Fats ----->
Lipids ----- Energy Dense ----- Monounsaturated ----- LDL cholesterol ----- Polyunsaturated ----- Saturated ----- Trans fats ----- Omega 3 ----- Omega 6

Water ----->

MACRONUTRIENTS ----->
Carbohydrates ----- Fibre ----- Protein ----- Fats (lipids)

Carbohydrates ----->
Glucose ----- Glycaemic Index ----- High GI ----- Medium GI ----- Low GI
Energy ----- Kilojoules ----- Basal Metabolic Rate ----- Fibre
MICRONUTRIENTS ----->
Vitamins ----- Minerals


Minerals ----->
Calcium ----- Phosphorus ----- Fluoride ----- Iron ----- Iodine ----- Sodium ----- Kilojoules ----- Basal Metabolic Rate ----- Fibre

Vitamins ----->
Vitamin A ----- Folate ----- Vitamin B12 ----- Vitamin D -----Vitamin C
MACRONUTRIENTS
"Nutrients required in large amounts"

Carbohydrates/Protein/Fats
"Nutrients required in small amounts"

Vitamins and Minerals
MICRONUTRIENTS
KEY WORDS
NUTRIENT DENSE:
Contains useful amounts of different nutrients without having a high energy (kj) value.

ENERGY DENSE:

Contains minimal nutrients & has a high energy (kj) value
Carbohydrate from structure to food source
s
Macronutrient which is broken down to glucose once ingested.

FUNCTION:
Preferred
source of energy.
Provides 16kj of energy per gram.

Brain and CNS
need a continuous supply of glucose to function.

Low GI foods help supply energy slower and over a longer period, keeping BG levels at a constant level.

Improves the
taste of food,
as humans respond positively to taste of sweetness.

FOOD SOURCES
Breads, Cereals, Pasta, Rice, Potato's and Bananas are food sources high in carbohydrates
CARBOHYDRATES OVERVIEW
Fibre from structure to food sources
“Complex carbohydrate found in plants that remains mostly undigested as it travels through the digestive tract.”

FUNCTION:
Assists in the
transport of food
in the intestinal tract

Provides the bulk to assist in the
removal of wastes
from the body

Makes the body feel full, to assist with
weight management

Assists in
reducing cholesterol levels

Assists in
preventing some cancers.
E.g. Colorectal cancer

FOOD SOURCES:
Wholegrain breads and cereals, fruit and vegetables particularly when the skin is left on are food sources high in fibre.
FIBRE OVERVIEW
CARBOHYDRATES/FIBRE AND THE NHPAs
Excess carbohydrates
can lead to
weight gain
if not used for energy and as a result can result in
Obesity
and hence
increase risk
of
CVD and Diabetes.
Fibre
can increase feelings of
fullness
, which will
prevent obesity
and
reduce
the
risk
of
Diabetes, CVD, High cholesterol levels
High fibre
diets may
decrease risk
of
colorectal cancer
Protein from structure to food sources
“Macronutrient made from amino acids that is necessary for the growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue.”

FUNCTION:
Secondary energy source,
when Carbohydrates and fats are unavailable.

Transports substances
throughout the body. Protein forms LDL and HDL which are carriers of cholesterol.

Protein is a component of haemoglobin (the oxygen carrying component of blood) and is also responsible for
oxygen
and
iron transport
around the body. Anaemia is characterised by lack of haemoglobin.

Required for the
growth, repair
and
maintenance
of the
body cells/tissues
and provides the building blocks of growth, especially in muscles, body organs, skin.

Needed for the
production of antibodies, enzymes
and
hormones
PROTEIN OVERVIEW
FOOD SOURCES:
Found in both animal and plant sources
Meat, Milk, eggs, soybeans, nuts, legumes, corn are good food sources of protein
.
PROTEIN AND THE NHPAs
Excess protein
can lead to
weight gain
if not used for energy and as a result can
result in

Obesity
and hence
increase risk
of
CVD, Colorectal cancer
and
Diabetes.
Excess protein
may lead to
excessive loss
of
calcium
from bones and hence
increase risk
of
osteoporosis.

FATS
WATER
REMEMBER:
THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY

GOOD FATS: Unsaturated fats = healthy CV system
Monounsaturated:

olive oil, avocado, canola oil, nuts, peanut butter
Polyunsaturated: (Omega 3 and 6)

Omega 3 Fish (E.g. trout/salmon/tuna/sardines), Soy and canola
Omega 6 Nuts, seeds, corn/sunflower/soy oils

BAD FATS: Saturated fats = CV health issues E.g. high BP/cholesterol/stroke
Saturated (Generally found in animal products)
Cream, full cream milk, cheese, fried take away, pastries, biscuits

Ugly fats: Trans fats = most adverse effects on CV health
Trans: (These fats have the longest shelf life.)
Processed foods, pies, pastries, cakes, margarine and solid spreads made from cooking
FATS AND THE NHPAs
SATURATED:
Associated with
negative effects
on health such as
high blood pressure, cholesterol
and increase risk of
stroke.
as it i
ncreases LDL cholesterol
production in liver, which can
contribute to atherosclerosis
and
cardiovascular disease.

Diets high in saturated fat have also been shown to
increase
the
impact
of
impaired glucose regulation
and the risk of
type 2 diabetes

TRANS FAT:
Raises
the
LDL
levels and
increase risk
of
cardiovascular disease.

Restricts glucose
from
entering cells,
resulting in
insulin resistance
and increasing risk of
type 2 diabetes.

E.g. Processed foods, pies, pastries, cakes, margarine and solid spreads made from cooking
FATS AND THE NHPAs
M
ONOUNSATURATED
Assists in
lowering
Low Density Lipoproteins
(LDL) Cholesterol
(bad cholesterol) and hence
reduces risk
of
atherosclerosis
and hence
CVD.

Assists in
decreasing
the
impact
of
impaired glucose regulatlion
and
decrease
risk of type 2 diabetes.

Too much fat
will
contribute
to
weight gain,

obesity
and
associated conditions.

POLYUNSATURATED: (OMEGA 3 AND 6)
Both act to
lower LDL cholesterol
in blood stream by
increasing
High Density Lipoproteins
(HDL)
(good cholesterol) and hence
reduce risk
of
heart disease

Omega 3
also
promote elasticity
of
blood vessels
and
prevent blood clots
,
reducing
the
risk of heart attack
and
stroke.


Omega 6 polyunsaturated fats

decrease
the i
mpact
of
impaired glucose regulation
and ultimately
decrease
the risk of developing
type 2 diabetes.
FATS OVERVIEW
"Macronutrient also referred to as triglycerides as they are composed of one glycerol and 3 fatty acids. "

Necessary to provide and store energy in the body.

There are 3 major groups of fats – saturated, unsaturated (mono/poly) and trans fats.
FUNCTION
All
chemical reactions
require the presence of water

Water
transports water
to the cells,
filters out wastes
and
lubricates food
as it moves through the gastrointestinal tract

Controls body temperature.
Heat can be efficiently removed in perspiration. As perspiration evaporates, heat is taken away from the skin and cools surface.

Required for
muscular contractions

Key
component of blood,
especially plasma

Key
component of cells, tissues, systems
and is required to carry out their functions

FOOD SOURCES;
Most foods contain some water. Many fruits and vegetables have higher levels of water.
Vitamins from structure to food sources
“Organic compounds needed by the body in small amounts for the health, growth and optimal functioning. “.

Micronutrient that functions with enzymes to speed up chemical reactions for body functioning, including energy production.

VITAMINS Overview


Required for the
absorption
of
calcium
and
phosphorous
from the intestine into the blood stream

Lack of vitamin D
can lead to
weakened bones
and teeth (rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults)

FOOD SOURCES:
Fish including tuna, salmon, sardines, cheese and egg yolks
VITAMIN D AND THE NHPA's
MINERALS OVERVIEW
MINERALS FROM STRUCTURE TO FOOD SOURCE
CALCIUM AND THE NHPAs
PHOSPHORUS AND THE NHPAs
SODIUM AND THE NHPAs

Inorganic compounds needed in small amounts for the health, growth and optimal functioning of many parts of the body.

Classified as micronutrients and are needed to maintain healthy bones and blood to maintain normal cell function.

Some minerals work with enzymes to help with:

Chemical reactions,
Nerve impulses throughout the body
Water balance and fluid pressure
Plays an important role of regulating water in the body

Aids in functioning of muscle and brain cells

Overconsumption can cause health problems such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, kidney problems and osteoporosis

Deficiency can lead to cramps, dizziness, confusion and dehydration

FOOD SOURCES:
Table salt, processed foods, olives, cheese, butter, MSG, soy sauce are all sources of sodium

Works with calcium to harden bones and teeth

Component of DNA and assists in muscle contraction and kidney function

Diabetes and alcoholism can prevent phosphorous being absorbed, which could lead to bone loss, weakness and poor appetite

FOOD SOURCES:
Foods rich in protein (dairy products/meat/eggs), nuts, legumes and fish are high in phosphorus

Hardening agent for teeth, bones, cartilage

Aids in muscle contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes and functioning of the nervous system

Needed to strengthen bones. If not achieved you are at risk of developing osteoporosis and suffering fractures

FOOD SOURCES:
Dairy products (milk/cheese/yoghurt), sardines, green leafy vegetables
PROTECTIVE NUTRIENTS FOR SELECTED NHPA’S

PROTEIN:

Excess protein converted to fat and stored in body, which can be detrimental and increase risk of CVD

Some protein sources (Bacon/hamburgers) are high saturated fat content, which can be detrimental

Recommended to eat lean red meat and fish, poultry 3-4 times a week for positive cardiovascular health

RISK NUTRIENTS FOR SELECTED NHPA’S
RISK NUTRIENTS:
Nutrients that put people at risk of diet related conditions

PROTECTIVE NUTRIENTS:
Nutrients that protect people from diet related conditions

ROLE OF NUTRITION IN NHPA’S
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

SATURATED/TRANS FATS:
Excess saturated/trans fat, leads to an increase in LDL cholesterol and increases risk of CVD

High trans fat decreases HDL cholesterol (Good cholesterol), which can have adverse affects on ones cardiovascular health

Recommended that fat makes up 25-30% total energy intake, with 8-10% consumed from saturated/trans fat

UNSATURATED FATS
Unsaturated fats can lower LDL cholesterol and protect HDL cholesterol, which decreases blood cholesterol levels

OMEGA 3 POLYUNSATURATED FISH OILS:
Helps reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow to the heart and prevent CVD by assisting with lowering cholesterol levels

CARBOHYDRATES/PROTEIN:
High intake of carbohydrates/protein are linked to increased weight gain and associated conditions such as CVD.
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN OBESITY

ENERGY DENSE FOODS
Eating more food than the body uses in metabolism and physical activity results in excess body fat, and therefore lead to being overweight or obese.

Energy dense foods (soft drink/high fat snacks/alcohol) can contribute to obesity and increase risk of CVD

INSOLUBLE FIBRE
These foods are usually lower in fat and hence lower in kj. Which could contribute to a healthy weight and reduce risk of obesity

CARBOHYDRATES/PROTEIN/FATS
Excess consumption can lead to obesity if not used for energy

WATER
No kj, so can reduce risk of obesity and associated conditions (CVD)
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN COLORECTAL CANCER

CARBOHYDRATES/PROTEIN/FATS
Excess consumption can lead to weight gain, increasing risk of colorectal cancer.

ALCOHOL:
May increase the role of carcinogens, which increases susceptibility to cancerous growths.

Small amounts of red wine, may protect you from cancer due its antioxidant principles

HIGH KJ DIET:
Stimulates rapid growth in children and possible link to colorectal cancer later in adulthood.

SATURATED FAT:
Excess intake of saturated and trans fats have links with colorectal cancer

FIBRE:
Soluble fibre may act as a protective factor against colorectal cancer as fibre assists with the removal of wastes

OMEGA 3:
Decrease the growth of cancerous cells by reducing inflammation in the colon
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN DIABETES MELLITUS...

WATER AND SUGAR FREE DRINKS:
Water prevents sudden large increase in glucose levels.

EATING MEALS AT REGULAR INTERVALS:
Spacing carbohydrate consumption, ensures blood glucose levels remain within normal levels.

SATURATED AND TRANS FATS:
High intake increase excess weight gain and therefore increases chance of diabetes.

Trans fat can contribute to high BG levels, resulting in impaired glucose regulation and hence diabetes mellitus.

CARBOHYDRATES/FATS/PROTEIN
Excess consumption can lead to weight gain and obesity, increasing risk of diabetes mellitus.

FIBRE
Reduces blood glucose levels, which can protect against impaired glucose regulation and hence diabetes mellitus



ROLE OF NUTRITION IN OSTEOPOROSIS

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Low intake prevents bones from developing and result in reduced bone mass

High intake is essential during childhood, adolescence when the skeleton is growing and being mineralised

High intake after age of 3o reduces bone thinning. Especially important for women after menopause

VITAMIN D
Stimulates absorption of calcium and phosphorous, which assists with improving bone density and decrease risk of fracture

PROTEIN
Excess consumption can increase loss of calcium from bones, which increases risk of osteoporosis.

SODIUM
Excess sodium causes calcium to be excreted in urine, which can decrease bone density an contribute to osteoporosis.
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