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HHD UNIT 3 AOS 1 Part 3 (SAC 2)
Transcript of HHD UNIT 3 AOS 1 Part 3 (SAC 2)
"UNDERSTANDING AUSTRALIA'S HEALTH
NUTRITION AND THE NHPA's
Nutrition can decrease or increase the risk of a range of conditions identified within the NHPA's.
Having a balanced food intake is the key to maintaining an adequate diet and therefore reduce the risk of diet-related conditions
There are 6 categoreis of nutrients that are needed for optimal health
Discuss the role of the National Health Priority Areas (NHPA's) in improving Australia's health status"
The role of
the following conditions recognised in the
cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, colorectal cancer, obesity and osteoporosis, taking into account, where relevant, the
(as a determinant of health) and
major food sources
of protein, carbohydrate (including fibre), fats (mono, poly, saturated and trans), water, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and vitamin D.
Amino Acids ----- Anaemia ----- legumes
Lipids ----- Energy Dense ----- Monounsaturated ----- LDL cholesterol ----- Polyunsaturated ----- Saturated ----- Trans fats ----- Omega 3 ----- Omega 6
Carbohydrates ----- Fibre ----- Protein ----- Fats (lipids)
Glucose ----- Glycaemic Index ----- High GI ----- Medium GI ----- Low GI
Energy ----- Kilojoules ----- Basal Metabolic Rate ----- Fibre
Vitamins ----- Minerals
Calcium ----- Phosphorus ----- Fluoride ----- Iron ----- Iodine ----- Sodium ----- Kilojoules ----- Basal Metabolic Rate ----- Fibre
Vitamin A ----- Folate ----- Vitamin B12 ----- Vitamin D -----Vitamin C
"Nutrients required in large amounts"
"Nutrients required in small amounts"
Vitamins and Minerals
Contains useful amounts of different nutrients without having a high energy (kj) value.
Contains minimal nutrients & has a high energy (kj) value
Carbohydrate from structure to food source
Macronutrient which is broken down to glucose once ingested.
source of energy.
Provides 16kj of energy per gram.
Brain and CNS
need a continuous supply of glucose to function.
Low GI foods help supply energy slower and over a longer period, keeping BG levels at a constant level.
taste of food,
as humans respond positively to taste of sweetness.
Breads, Cereals, Pasta, Rice, Potato's and Bananas are food sources high in carbohydrates
Fibre from structure to food sources
“Complex carbohydrate found in plants that remains mostly undigested as it travels through the digestive tract.”
Assists in the
transport of food
in the intestinal tract
Provides the bulk to assist in the
removal of wastes
from the body
Makes the body feel full, to assist with
reducing cholesterol levels
preventing some cancers.
E.g. Colorectal cancer
Wholegrain breads and cereals, fruit and vegetables particularly when the skin is left on are food sources high in fibre.
CARBOHYDRATES/FIBRE AND THE NHPAs
can lead to
if not used for energy and as a result can result in
CVD and Diabetes.
can increase feelings of
, which will
Diabetes, CVD, High cholesterol levels
Protein from structure to food sources
“Macronutrient made from amino acids that is necessary for the growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue.”
Secondary energy source,
when Carbohydrates and fats are unavailable.
throughout the body. Protein forms LDL and HDL which are carriers of cholesterol.
Protein is a component of haemoglobin (the oxygen carrying component of blood) and is also responsible for
around the body. Anaemia is characterised by lack of haemoglobin.
Required for the
and provides the building blocks of growth, especially in muscles, body organs, skin.
Needed for the
production of antibodies, enzymes
Found in both animal and plant sources
Meat, Milk, eggs, soybeans, nuts, legumes, corn are good food sources of protein
PROTEIN AND THE NHPAs
can lead to
if not used for energy and as a result can
CVD, Colorectal cancer
may lead to
from bones and hence
THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY
GOOD FATS: Unsaturated fats = healthy CV system
olive oil, avocado, canola oil, nuts, peanut butter
Polyunsaturated: (Omega 3 and 6)
Omega 3 Fish (E.g. trout/salmon/tuna/sardines), Soy and canola
Omega 6 Nuts, seeds, corn/sunflower/soy oils
BAD FATS: Saturated fats = CV health issues E.g. high BP/cholesterol/stroke
Saturated (Generally found in animal products)
Cream, full cream milk, cheese, fried take away, pastries, biscuits
Ugly fats: Trans fats = most adverse effects on CV health
Trans: (These fats have the longest shelf life.)
Processed foods, pies, pastries, cakes, margarine and solid spreads made from cooking
FATS AND THE NHPAs
on health such as
high blood pressure, cholesterol
and increase risk of
as it i
ncreases LDL cholesterol
production in liver, which can
contribute to atherosclerosis
Diets high in saturated fat have also been shown to
impaired glucose regulation
and the risk of
type 2 diabetes
and increasing risk of
type 2 diabetes.
E.g. Processed foods, pies, pastries, cakes, margarine and solid spreads made from cooking
FATS AND THE NHPAs
Low Density Lipoproteins
(bad cholesterol) and hence
impaired glucose regulatlion
risk of type 2 diabetes.
Too much fat
POLYUNSATURATED: (OMEGA 3 AND 6)
Both act to
lower LDL cholesterol
in blood stream by
High Density Lipoproteins
(good cholesterol) and hence
prevent blood clots
risk of heart attack
Omega 6 polyunsaturated fats
impaired glucose regulation
the risk of developing
type 2 diabetes.
"Macronutrient also referred to as triglycerides as they are composed of one glycerol and 3 fatty acids. "
Necessary to provide and store energy in the body.
There are 3 major groups of fats – saturated, unsaturated (mono/poly) and trans fats.
require the presence of water
to the cells,
filters out wastes
as it moves through the gastrointestinal tract
Controls body temperature.
Heat can be efficiently removed in perspiration. As perspiration evaporates, heat is taken away from the skin and cools surface.
component of blood,
component of cells, tissues, systems
and is required to carry out their functions
Most foods contain some water. Many fruits and vegetables have higher levels of water.
Vitamins from structure to food sources
“Organic compounds needed by the body in small amounts for the health, growth and optimal functioning. “.
Micronutrient that functions with enzymes to speed up chemical reactions for body functioning, including energy production.
Required for the
from the intestine into the blood stream
Lack of vitamin D
can lead to
and teeth (rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults)
Fish including tuna, salmon, sardines, cheese and egg yolks
VITAMIN D AND THE NHPA's
MINERALS FROM STRUCTURE TO FOOD SOURCE
CALCIUM AND THE NHPAs
PHOSPHORUS AND THE NHPAs
SODIUM AND THE NHPAs
Inorganic compounds needed in small amounts for the health, growth and optimal functioning of many parts of the body.
Classified as micronutrients and are needed to maintain healthy bones and blood to maintain normal cell function.
Some minerals work with enzymes to help with:
Nerve impulses throughout the body
Water balance and fluid pressure
Plays an important role of regulating water in the body
Aids in functioning of muscle and brain cells
Overconsumption can cause health problems such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, kidney problems and osteoporosis
Deficiency can lead to cramps, dizziness, confusion and dehydration
Table salt, processed foods, olives, cheese, butter, MSG, soy sauce are all sources of sodium
Works with calcium to harden bones and teeth
Component of DNA and assists in muscle contraction and kidney function
Diabetes and alcoholism can prevent phosphorous being absorbed, which could lead to bone loss, weakness and poor appetite
Foods rich in protein (dairy products/meat/eggs), nuts, legumes and fish are high in phosphorus
Hardening agent for teeth, bones, cartilage
Aids in muscle contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes and functioning of the nervous system
Needed to strengthen bones. If not achieved you are at risk of developing osteoporosis and suffering fractures
Dairy products (milk/cheese/yoghurt), sardines, green leafy vegetables
PROTECTIVE NUTRIENTS FOR SELECTED NHPA’S
Excess protein converted to fat and stored in body, which can be detrimental and increase risk of CVD
Some protein sources (Bacon/hamburgers) are high saturated fat content, which can be detrimental
Recommended to eat lean red meat and fish, poultry 3-4 times a week for positive cardiovascular health
RISK NUTRIENTS FOR SELECTED NHPA’S
Nutrients that put people at risk of diet related conditions
Nutrients that protect people from diet related conditions
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN NHPA’S
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH
Excess saturated/trans fat, leads to an increase in LDL cholesterol and increases risk of CVD
High trans fat decreases HDL cholesterol (Good cholesterol), which can have adverse affects on ones cardiovascular health
Recommended that fat makes up 25-30% total energy intake, with 8-10% consumed from saturated/trans fat
Unsaturated fats can lower LDL cholesterol and protect HDL cholesterol, which decreases blood cholesterol levels
OMEGA 3 POLYUNSATURATED FISH OILS:
Helps reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow to the heart and prevent CVD by assisting with lowering cholesterol levels
High intake of carbohydrates/protein are linked to increased weight gain and associated conditions such as CVD.
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN OBESITY
ENERGY DENSE FOODS
Eating more food than the body uses in metabolism and physical activity results in excess body fat, and therefore lead to being overweight or obese.
Energy dense foods (soft drink/high fat snacks/alcohol) can contribute to obesity and increase risk of CVD
These foods are usually lower in fat and hence lower in kj. Which could contribute to a healthy weight and reduce risk of obesity
Excess consumption can lead to obesity if not used for energy
No kj, so can reduce risk of obesity and associated conditions (CVD)
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN COLORECTAL CANCER
Excess consumption can lead to weight gain, increasing risk of colorectal cancer.
May increase the role of carcinogens, which increases susceptibility to cancerous growths.
Small amounts of red wine, may protect you from cancer due its antioxidant principles
HIGH KJ DIET:
Stimulates rapid growth in children and possible link to colorectal cancer later in adulthood.
Excess intake of saturated and trans fats have links with colorectal cancer
Soluble fibre may act as a protective factor against colorectal cancer as fibre assists with the removal of wastes
Decrease the growth of cancerous cells by reducing inflammation in the colon
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN DIABETES MELLITUS...
WATER AND SUGAR FREE DRINKS:
Water prevents sudden large increase in glucose levels.
EATING MEALS AT REGULAR INTERVALS:
Spacing carbohydrate consumption, ensures blood glucose levels remain within normal levels.
SATURATED AND TRANS FATS:
High intake increase excess weight gain and therefore increases chance of diabetes.
Trans fat can contribute to high BG levels, resulting in impaired glucose regulation and hence diabetes mellitus.
Excess consumption can lead to weight gain and obesity, increasing risk of diabetes mellitus.
Reduces blood glucose levels, which can protect against impaired glucose regulation and hence diabetes mellitus
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN OSTEOPOROSIS
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Low intake prevents bones from developing and result in reduced bone mass
High intake is essential during childhood, adolescence when the skeleton is growing and being mineralised
High intake after age of 3o reduces bone thinning. Especially important for women after menopause
Stimulates absorption of calcium and phosphorous, which assists with improving bone density and decrease risk of fracture
Excess consumption can increase loss of calcium from bones, which increases risk of osteoporosis.
Excess sodium causes calcium to be excreted in urine, which can decrease bone density an contribute to osteoporosis.