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HHD UNIT 3 AOS 2 (Part 2)

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Casey Hawley

on 29 April 2016

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Transcript of HHD UNIT 3 AOS 2 (Part 2)

SAC
THURSDAY 5TH MAY

WEEK 2-3
PP. 243 - 269
Explain and draw informed conclusions about the role of Government and Non-Government agencies in promoting healthy eating.

GOVERNMENT APPROACHES TO HEALTHY EATING
AUSTRALIAN DIETARY GUIDELINES
DIETARY GUIDELINES OVERVIEW:

Provide
INFORMATION
for
GENERAL POPULATION, EDUCATORS, HEALTH PROFESSIONALS
regarding healthy food choices.

Encourage
HEALTH
and
WELL-BEING.

MINIMISE RISK
of development of
DIET RELATED DISEASES
, such as diabetes, obesity or hypertension etc.

Highlight the groups of
FOODS
and
LIFESTYLE PATTERNS
that support good nutrition

Highlights the
RECOMMENDED
number of
SERVES
per day for different
AGE GROUP
s, each
SEX
as well as
PREGNANT and LACTATING WOMEN.

NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS IN PROMOTING HEALTHY EATING
WEEK 4
PP. 270 - 290

PROMOTING HEALTH IN AUSTRALIA
UNIT 3 AOS 2 (PART 2)

AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT ------ >
PUBLIC HEALTH ----- HEALTHCARE SYSTEM ----- FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ----- NON GOVERNMENT ----- LEGISLATION ----- MEDICARE ----- OUT OF POCKET EXPENSE ----- SCHEDULED FEE -----BULK BILLING -----CO-PAYMENT -----MEDICARE LEVY ----- MEDICARE LEVY SURCHARGE ----- PBS -----PBS SAFETY NET -----QUARANTINE ----- FUNDING ----- PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE ----- PREMIUM ----- PHI REBATE ----- LIFETIME HEALTH COVER ----- LOCAL GOVERNMENT ----- STATE GOVERNMENT ----- CONTINUOUS ----- ACCESSIBLE ----- RESPONSIVE ----- EFFECTIVE ----- SAFE ----- EFFICIENT ----- SUSTAINABLE


KEY WORDS

IDENTIFY and EXPLAIN key components of Australia’s health system including:

Local, state, federal governments’ responsibility for health including funding

Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and private health insurance;

The values that underpin the Australian health system
FOCUS
AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE
LOCAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HEALTH CARE
Provides a safe environment for its community via:

Organisation of public health programs such as
IMMUNISATION

Provision of
COMMUNITY SERVICES
such as local nurses and health centres

Maintaining a
SANITARY ENVIRONMENT
via collection and disposal of garbage and sewerage, maintenance of public parks, pools and other public areas.

Ensuring roads and
PUBLIC AREAS
are well maintained

Providing a safe
WATER SUPPLY

Overseeing the planning of
LAND USE

Development of
RECREATIONAL/CULTURAL FACILITIES

Ensuring the
CLEANLINESS of FOOD
storage and preparation of shops and restaurants

STATE GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HEALTH CARE
Provide a wide range of health services, such as:

Providing
PUBLIC HOSPITAL
service, and
PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS,

Public health activities such as
PREVENTATIVE/EARLY DETECTION PROGRAMS
(E.g. Breast cancer mammogram)

MATERNAL
and
CHILD HEALTHCARE

Imlementation of a
STATE MENTAL HEALTH STRATEGY

Providing
INFORMATION/EDUCATION
promoting health in
SCHOOLS
etc. via government agencies such as VICHEALTH

Providing
AMBULANCE
services

Legislation including
ROAD RULES
and
SMOKING BANS

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HEALTH CARE
Responsible for healthcare that impacts on ALL Australians, including:

Management and funding of
MEDICARE
, and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme
(PBS)

Regulation of
PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE
(Approving premium costs/providing incentives to take up PHI)

Management of
QUARANTINE
service (E.G. prevention of diseases entering the country)

FINANCIAL SUPPORT (FUNDING)
to government and non government health organisations

Development and regulation of
HEALTH POLICY
and
LEGISLATION

Management and funding of
NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMS
(E.g. NHPA’s)
Australia’s
universal health insurance scheme
introduced in
1984
by the
Federal Government

Funded
by the Federal Government, through contributions from the 2
% MEDICARE LEVY
.
MEDICARE LEVY SURCHARGE
, and
GENERAL TAXES.

Provides access to adequate healthcare for
all Australians
,
Permanent residents
and people from countries with a reciprocal agreement
(E.g. NZ/ UK)
at little of no cost at all.


OBJECTIVES
Make
health care more affordable and accesssible
for ALL Australians.


To provide a
high quality care
for ALL Australians.

WHAT IS COVERED BY MEDICARE.....

In/Out PUBLIC hospital services

Free or subsidized treatment by GP’s, optometrists and certain tests

Treatment and accommodation as a public patient in a public hospital as a result of emergency or doctor referral

Tests and examinations to treat illness (E.g. X-rays/Pathology tests)



WHAT IS NOT COVERED...

Dental examinations and treatment

Ambulance services

Home nursing

Physiotherapy and Occupational therapy

Hearing aids and glasses

Medicines not included on the PBS

Private hospital costs

Cosmetic/Unessessary surgery
HOW IT WORKS.....

Coverage of healthcare services is based on a
SCHEDULE FEE
by the Federal Government.

Practitioners may wish to
CHARGE MORE
than the scheduled fee, therefore leaving the patient to cover the difference as an
OUT OF POCKET EXPENSE (CO-PAYMENT).

If practitioners only charge the schedule fee, the indidual is said to have been
BULK BILLED
. Meaning there is NO OUT OF POCKET EXPENSES for the patient.

KEY TERMS...

MEDICARE LEVY
2% tax placed on the taxable income of most tax payers to fund healthcare system

MEDICARE LEVY SURCHARGE
Additional 1 – 1.5% on top of 2% levy placed on taxable income for individuals earning above a certain income. Only paid if these individuals don’t have private health insurance, HENCE encourages these individuals to take out private hospital cover and reduce the demand on the public Medicare system.

(1% extra for indivduals who dont have PHI and earn over 90,001 and families who earn over 180,001)
(1.5% extra for indviduals who dont have PHI and earn over 140,001)

SCHEDULE FEE
Amount Medicare will contribute to a health serice.

OUT OF POCKET EXPENSE (CO-PAYMENT)
If doctor charges more than the scheduled fee. The individual will have to pay the rest.

BULK BILLING
Bulk Billing is where the Doctor bills Medicare directly and accepts the Medicare payment as full payment. Meaning there is NO out of pocket expense for the patient.

AUSTRALIAN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM
(PUBLIC V PRIVATE)
NIB CLIPS
GOING TO HOSPITAL
(PUBLIC V PRIVATE)
LIFETIME HEALTH COVER
SEEING A DOCTOR
(SCHEDULE FEE/BULK BILLING/OUT OF POCKET EXPENSES/MEDICARE SAFETY NET))
MEDICARE LEVY SURCHARGE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITIES....
1.
1.
1.
2.
PHARMACEUTICAL BENEFITS SCHEME
Introduced in 1948 to SUBSIDISE the cost of a wide range of prescription MEDICATIONS, to ensure ACCESS to vital medications at AFFORDABLE prices
($38.30 or $6.20 for concesion card holders).

There are over 4000 medications found on the PBS.

HOW A DRUG GETS ON THE LIST...
Effectiveness of drug, its safety and cost effectiveness compared to other treatments are considered before including it on the PBS.

PBS SAFETY NET...
To protect individuals/families who purchase alot of PBS listed medications, once they reach the safety net ($1475.70) they only have to pay a concessional co-payment rate ($6.20)
3.
Protecting our borders and ensuring goods coming in are free of disease

Mandatory report any sick passengers

Monitoring infection patterns of certain diseases
QUARANTINE
PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE...
Members pay a
PREMIUM
in return for
SUBSIDISED PAYMENT
towards
SERVICES NOT
covered by
MEDICARE.

People with PHI have greater
CHOICE
of
HOSPITALS, DOCTORS, SERVICES, can have their OWN ROOM


etc. and
DONT HAVE TO WAIT
for elective surgery such as hip/knee replacements.

There are two forms of PHI, they are
HOSPITAL COVER
and
ANCILLARY (EXTRAS) COVER.
You can select to have one or both.

Private services are
COSTLY
and at times the total bill exceeds the amount covered by the company. In this case the patient must pay the
GAP.
(SEE BELOW)

PHI OVERVIEW
PHI INCENTIVES

PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE REBATE (INCOME TESTED)
Most Australians with private health insurance receive a rebate from the Australian Government to help cover the cost of their high premiums. The Private Health Insurance Rebate is income/age tested.
Individuals earning under 90,000 (Under 65 years receive a 27% rebate
Individuals earning between 90,001 - 105,000 receive a 18% rebate
Individuals earning between 105,001 - 140,000 receive a 9% rebate

Families earning under 180,000 receive a 27% rebate
Families earning between 180,001 - 210,000 receive a 18% rebate
Families earning between 210,001 - 280,000 receive a 9% rebate

Individual policy holders aged 70+ earning under 90,000 receive a 36% rebate
Individual policy holders aged 70+ earning 105,001 - 140,000 receive a 18% rebate

PHI ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES
PHI INCENTIVES


LIFETIME HEALTH COVER
Encourages people to take out hospital insurance earlier in life (Before 31). If you choose to take up PHI after this age, you pay a 2% loading on top of the cost of the health insurance for every year they are aged over 30.

For example a person who takes out PHI at aged 40 will pay 20% more (for 10 years) than someone who first took out PHI at age 30.



MEDICARE LEVY SURCHARGE
Additional 1 – 1.5% on top of 2% levy placed on taxable income for individuals earning above a certain income. Only paid if these individuals DON'T have private health insurance, HENCE encourages these individuals to take out private hospital cover and reduce the demand on the public Medicare system.

(1% extra for indivduals who dont have PHI and earn over 90,001 and families who earn over 180,001)
(1.5% extra for indviduals who dont have PHI and earn over 140,001)

VALUES OF THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM


S
AFE
C
ONTINUOUS
A
CCESSIBLE
R
ESPONSIVE
E
FFECTIVE
S
USTAINABLE
E
FFICIENT



Avoidance or
reduction
to
potential harm
from healthcare management and/or the environment in which healthcare is delivered.

For example:
Ensuring an appropriate environment (sterilized equipment) is provided when performing surgery.
Minimising catching infections within hospital settings.


Ability to provide
uninterrupted, coordinated care
or service across programs, practitioners, organisations and levels over time.

For example
Having the ability to make various appointments and deal with numerous healthcare professionals at once.
Various healthcare professionals communicating to one another regarding their patients.

Ability of people to obtain
healthcare
at the
right place
and
right time
irrespective of income, physical location and cultural background.

For example providing healthcare to everyone no matter of race, religious beliefs or situation.
Treating people with
respect
(Eg. confidentiality, participation in choices) and providing a
client oriented health system.

For example receiving immediate treatment in an emergency AND low waiting lists.

Care, intervention or action achieves the
desired results
with the most
cost effective
use of resources

For example, utilising resources in best way possible .
Capacity to
provide ever lasting infrastructure
such as workforce, facilities and equipment and to be innovative and respond to emerging needs.

For example, ensuring continuous funding is provided to assist with the ongoing support and development of the healthcare system.

Care, intervention or action that achieves the
desired outcome
in appropriate
time frame
, meets the
needs
of the
individual
and is of a
high standard
.

For example:
A cancer patient given a range of options to consider dependent on the individual case.
Providing high quality healthcare facilities to ensuring effective healthcare.


FOCUS
KEY WORDS
NUTRITION SURVEYS ----- AUSTRALIAN DIETARY GUIDELINES ----- THE AUSTRALIAN GUIDE TO HEALTHY EATING ----- DISCRETIONARY FOODS ----- NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS ----- NUTRITION AUSTRALIA ----- HEART FOUNDATION

NUTRITION SURVEYS
INFORMATION USED TO....

MONITOR NUTRIENT INTAKE against Dietary Guidelines.

ASSESS CHANGES in dietary HABITS overtime and to allow comparison

Provides a basis for IMPLEMENTING nutrition health promotion CAMPAIGNS

Provides information to assist with POLICY/STRATEGY development

Assist with the EVALUATION of current POLOCIES/STRATEGIES already in place

INFORMATION COLLECTED IN SURVEYS ....

Foods/drinks/supplements consumed and serving sizes in a 24 hour period

FRUIT/VEGETABLE consumption

MILK type consumed

SALT use

FOOD SECURITY questions

BODY MEASUREMENTS

Provide a snapshot of the nutritional intake of Australians or population groups within Australia at a particular time.
SAMPLE SURVEY:
KIDS EAT, KIDS PLAY

OVERVIEW:

Just under 5000 Australian children (Aged 2-16 - approx. equal boys and girls).

Information about dietary intake, body size and weight & activity patterns were gathered in 2007.

Data also collected about location, income and gender to show differences between population groups.


AIMS OF THE SURVEY:

COMPARE NUTRITION INFORMATION with other survey’s.

COMPARE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DATA with the Australian Physical Activity Guidelines.

Allow Government and Health professionals to UNDERSTAND CHANGES in eating and physical activity habits.

Allow Government/Non Government agencies (E.g. FSANZ/CSIRO) to develop STRATEGIES/POLOCIES.

KEY FINDINGS:

% of female children (2-16yo) meeting CALCIUM/FRUIT/VEGETABLE requirements DECREASES with age.

MINORITY of children met the guidelines for LIMITING SATURATED FAT intake and having a MODERATE intake of SUGAR

Consumption of SODIUM all ages groups EXCEEDED the recommended level of intake.
WHATS IN A SERVE?
AUSTRALIAN GUIDE TO HEALTHY EATING
DISCRETIONARY FOODS =

Cakes/biscuits/confectionary/chocolates/pastries/pies/butter/cream/potato chips/soft drinks/cordials/sports and energy drinks/alcohol
APPLYING THE GUIDELINES TO YOUR DIET....
MONDAY NUTRITION ANALYSIS
SAM, 24 YEAR OLD FEMALE
DAILY NUTRIENT SUMMARY BY SERVE
COMPARING SAM's DIET WITH THE DAILY RECOMMENDATIONS

Consuming adequate amounts from grain group

Not consuming enough Vegetables

Meat intake is slightly above recommended




DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN
DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR ADULTS
DIETARY GUIDELINES DURING PREGNANCY
OVERVIEW....

FOOD SELECTION MODEL
incorporated as part of the
DIETARY GUIDELINES.

Provides clear guidance about
PROPORTIONS
of food that should be consumed from the
5 CORE FOOD
groups consistent with the
ADG.

Demonstrates importance of
CONSUMING
a
VARIETY
of foods.

Gives the
INDIVIDUAL
the ability to
ASSESS
their
DIET.

Advised to consume
'PLENTY OF WATER'
and consume
'SMALL AMOUNTS of MONOUNSATURATED/POLYUNSATURATED FATS'

Limit
"DISCRETIONARY FOODS'
such as soft drinks, sweets, alcohol and full cream products

Not for Profit organisation established in 1979

OBJECTIVES:
Conducts scientific nutrition
RESEARCH

PRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE MATERIAL
to policy makers, media, educators etc

CONSULT
Government departments the food industry on nutrition issues

ADVOCATE
importance of healthy eating and being physically active


NUTRITION AUSTRALIA ACTIONS

HEALTHY EATING ADVISORY SERVICE
Offers menu assessments, information and support for early childhood services, schools hospitals and workplaces across victoria.

DESIGN AND PUBLICATION OF RESOURCE
Books, posters, aprons, magnets, DVDs, teacher resources to educate all about healthy eating.

NATIONAL NUTRITION WEEK (OCTOBER)
Variety of different activities and programs run in conjunction with World Food Day.
E.g. Project Dinner Time

FOOD SELECTION MODELS
Healthy Eaing Pyramid

Runs Oct. 13-19 2013

COOK:
Develop skills and confidence to cook meals from scratch. This includes learning basic food safety principles, following recipes, and learning how to identify healthy recipes based on ingredients and preparation methods. There is a strong emphasis on choosing budget conscious meals with a focus on seasonal variety.

EAT:
Appreciate the tastes and textures of wholesome foods. Develop a greater depth of knowledge in reading and understanding food labels and making healthy choices in the supermarket.

ENJOY:
Experience the celebration and social/emotional connectedness that food brings. This can build and strengthen family relationships around the dinner table

HEALTHY EATING PYRAMID

Simple
VISUAL TOOL

Represents foods from basic food groups and arranges them into 4 sections:

Promotes food
VARIETY
and
limiting SALT and added SUGAR
and drinking
sufficient WATER.

Encourages
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
to
REDUCE RISK
of Obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes.

SERVING SIZES NOT
included and provision for
COMPOSITE FOODS
(E.g. Pizza) are
NOT
outlined within the model.

NATIONAL NUTRITION WEEK PROJECT
OVERVIEW:
The Heart Foundation is a charitable organisation that works to
inform
the
Australian public
about matters concerning
heart health.

The
aim
is to
reduce death
from heart attack, stroke and blood vessel disease in Australia.

ACTIONS: TICK OF APPROVAL
TICK OF APPROVAL
GO RED FOR WOMEN
MUM'S UNITED
Is a standard designed to help consumers compare similar food and choose a healthier option.

To be eligible for the tick, the item must meet strict criteria (E.g. low in sat/trans fat, kj's and contain positive ingredients like fibre and calcium etc.
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