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Understanding discipline in the uniformed public services- Assignment 3
Transcript of Understanding discipline in the uniformed public services- Assignment 3
of higher authority, unlike conformity obedience means that you
must adhere to an order or command. Obedience Conscious obedience is where you are fully aware that you are following orders where as if you are unconsciously obedient you have done it so many times that you no longer realise you are doing it. an example of this is a Sargent asking you to do the assualt course and you know your doing it. Where as in the morning you would polish ypur boots without being asked because this is something that you are used to doing everyday. As an act, practice and quality means the act of following orders from a higher authority. The practice of obedience makes the services efficient and disciplined and able to respond to situation quickly which allows mutual trust and respect to all those involved. An example of an act or quality is is when a sergent tells a lower ranked officer to move a tank for example following orders is an essential element in the public services, Orders are given by people in authority with intention of reach an objective efficiently and effectively. Verbal commands are not the only type of orders, in the unformed public services the written rules and regulations concerning the conduct of personal manner are called standing orders. compliance means to accordance with a wish or command. an example of compliance is in the army where a higher ranked officer is giving orders and the lower ranked have to comply with them whether they want to or not. Status as a factor of obedience means that within the public services, obedience depends on your rank within the hierarchy of authority. status is a factor in ensuring obedience, because if you have ambition and want promotion you have to show that you can follow orders. Obedience Influences on obedience- Fear Both physical and physiological fear is a good way of ensuring discipline. disobedience could lead to lower pay or a reduction in rank. There is also fear of that not obeying orders could stand in the way of career development in the future. Reward In the public sector people do not receive financial rewards for there duty however members are reinforced with medals and positive reinforcement or extended leave after a tour of duty. love-A different kind of love ins influenced, it is the love for their service and the camaraderie within the services. this is the affection for the team and the service has developed as a result of obedience of duty. Respect- If you respect someone, you value or admire them. in the public services promotion is gained through merit; that is, loyalty to the services, hard work, experience and displaying the kind of qualties needed for leadership. obedience relevance of obedience- Without obedience in the public services there would be no teamwork, team spirit, trust, respect and authority. If there was no obedience anarchy would break out within the services causing a defect in social order. A change in belief or behaviour in response to real or imagined group pressure, when there is no direct request to comply with the group nor any reason to justify the behaviour change. This definition was taken from the Btec public services level 1 textbook Common practice in the public services is to salute officers with a higher rank than you because it is out of respect,however wouldn't salute on patrol and when on leave. Social norms- When we are integrated into society we feel that we belong- we have a sense of purpose and this gives us a sense of being in control of our lives which makes us happy and confident. However those who are unable to socially integrate feelings such as loneliness, failure, vulnerability may occur which. An example of a social norm is to say please and thank you to everyone because it is considered polite. Conformity Self esteem comes from the way we are seen to comply or conform with, norms. in today's society we are guided by comments such as 'well done that was really good' or 'that was good but if you do this instead'. if you lack self confidence you may act out of character in order to gain the respect of others. Conformity Every member of the public services wants to feel accepted and they want to feel apart of a professional team, otherwise they would have joined the public services for no reason. If one team member doesnt conform to the norms of the team, it is likely to disrupt the dynamics of the team making it insignificant leading to the team or even the public services in disrepute. Authority Nature of authority Types of authority Authoritarian- In this style they tell people what to do and expect them to do it no arguments. Dictatorial-what they bring into place is done without the consent of the people it may affect. consultative- shares ideas and listens to problems but still solely make the decision themselves. Participated Leader allows one or more employees to be involved in the decision making. Legislation in authority The armed forces act 2000-Can have either have a normal hearing or a court Marshall. A normal hearing would be with one officer , whereas a court Marshall there will be at least three senior officers. The style of authority that fits in with this Authoritarian because there is a code of discipline that they are expected to follow and not question. This could also be dictatorial because these are rules that are put into place without the consent of the participants. Eg Being AWOL during duty Police Act 1997 section 50- all police services within the UK are subject to the police code of conduct.
Police and criminal evidence act 1984 part 9- This was brought in because of complaints of how police were treating suspects. Eg always ask do you have any medical conditions - This act is consultative because they have listened to what both officers and suspects have said and have made a compromise Fire service and rescue act 2004- This sets out a variety of duties and powers which fire and rescue authorities can promote fire safety, and respond to fires, road traffic accidents and emergencies. this is participated because they provide different needs for different community. This is Participated leader because Before this act was created they would have taken the views of both the public and the fire officers about whats right for them. P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 Power- This has several applications, it can depend on the context in which it is used. power is used as a tool of persuasion where is a conflict of interest or unwillingness to a request. This power can come from a lawful or unlawful source. They're six bases of power identified by Raven (1965) one example is Reward power- which means we do what we are asked because we desire rewards or benefits, such as praise, a wage increase or promotion. P3 P3 P3 P5 Conformity Video on obedience Position- In this case we usually mean that they hold a certain rank or status. For example in the royal navy a midshipman would have a higher position than a cadet. If you join the public services and are placed in a position of authority, you may lawfully command team members and have a duty to obey legitimate commands Nature of authority P5 Status- Many reasons to why we obey can be applied to why we accept authority. a couple of examples are- experts who are supposed to know more and people whom we believe can punish us. in the services each officer knows there status and where they belong in the hierarchy. Corruption- This is where someone lacks moral fibre and may be willing to take on acts of authority. An example of this could a senior officer could take bribes of a lower ranked officer to favour them and offer them the promotions Disobedience- This within the uniformed services can be an extremely serious change, depending on the degree. serious cases of this can lead to dishonorable discharge from your chosen service. An example of this would be a new recruit disobeying an order given to them by the highest authority like a commanding officer. Nature of authority Blind obedience- This is to carry out orders unquestioningly and without thinking of the questions, However the problem with this is knowing when to speak out when nessacary at which point do you ask yourself, do you stop obeying and see if the order is correct. Moral dilemmas- this is a problem where there is no obvious 'right' solution. sometimes you can work out this answer by weighing up the consequences. An example of this could be if a friend has done something wrong and you know about it and feel you should tell someone but don't want to loose your friend. Responsibility for decision making- this rests with the senior officer in charge, and a good leader would take responsibility for there decisions and stand by them no matter the consequences. Asch's Paradigm In 1951Asch wanted to show that people tend to agree with others because they feel some kind of pressure by not agreeing. They did this because it because it became normal and they wanted conformity within there lives. When participants heard the 'stooges' give the wrong answer over 75% of the participants also gave the wrong answer with just 25% disagreeing.
People agreed with each other because they didnt want to appear different in front of strangers, didnt want to be mad a fool of even though they may have known the answer was incorrect or they may simply not know the answer was incorrect. M3 M5 Milgram's Electric shock Zimbardos' Prison simulation Hoflings nurses HM chief inspector of prisons HM chief inspector of the fire services Extent of authority P5 Authority P5 P5 Authority In 1974 milgram wanted to test the theory that some people are already willing to obey orders without question, reguardless of threats demanded by authority.
milgrams used three people per experiment and two of those (the experimenter and the learner) were stooges and knew what was going on. The teacher had to up the voltage of an electric shock to the learner if they got the answer wrong, the learner however was faking the results that an electric shock would have on someone. Milgram did this to see how many people would keep going because of authority. The results were that the teacher showed reluctance to carry on but because of the expirmentor using phrases like 'please go on' or 'you have no other choice. Every teacher adminstred 300v and at least 65% adminstered 450v with is a lethal amount. In 1971 Zimbardo investigated human responce to captivity, 25 males were selected and were told that they will be randomly selected to be either the prision or ther guard, all of volunteers the had shown a preferance to be a prisoner. the guards were given the power to complete control to the prisoners and responded to this by calling a roll call during the night just to disrupt the prisoners sleep. one guard had said that 'power can be a great pleasure'. The experiment had only lasted 6 out of 14 days because of the emotional disoriatation of the prisoners that were chosen because ofthe emotional stability. In 1966 hofling want to test the relationships between doctors, nurses and paitents. This invovled doctors giving nurses tasks to see if they would follow the prders knowing that it can harm the paitent. the nurses were told to adminstor a toxic drug (it was only a glucose substicute) 21 out of 22 nurses adminstored the drug knowing the following: They had been told that the maxum dosage was 10mg, hosptial policystated that drugs were not to be perscribed over the phone and the drug was not on the ward stock list. In relation to all four studies i can conclude that most people will obey orders without question to those to appear to be in authority. I think that people have been conditioned to obey authority which starts out from when we are born and develops more when we start school, in holfing the nurses would have found nothing odd about taking orders from the doctor because that is what thy are accustomed to. Conclusion of theories Reports to the secratary of state, and get there authority from section 5A of the prisions act and section 57 of the criminal justice act 1982. It reports to the Home secretary on whether the objectives for prisons are being achieved in terms of accommodation, treatment of prisoners, conditions in prisons established by the department for communities and local government, is responsible for providing ministers and civil servants with independent professional advice on matters concerning the structure, organsation, performance and future development of the fire and rescue services. Not only responsible for inspecting fire and rescue services but advises on training and preparation for a range of major emergency issues. independent police commissioner In 2004 this group was formed and is used to oversee complaints against over 43 police authorities. One main reason to why this was created was the way the the police handle certain situations when dealing with the services including the hilsbrough disaster in 1989 in which 96 people died because the police made the wrong decisions on how to and how many people were allowed in each section. There power comes from the Power and right to enforce obedience Extent of authority relates limit of control held by an individual or organisation, it is governed by the job description as well as jurisdiction with authority from a statute or policy. For example the HM inspector of prisons is not going to go and inspect a school because it isn't in there authority or job description. The authority come form legislation or a statute for example a senior officer may ensure that all his colleagues are honest while on duty however any request to an illegal act is unlawful. Self esteem is needed in the public services because if people give you praise you feel better about yourself and are more likely to perform well where as if you are given nothing but criticism you will feel demotivated and are more likely to perform less. The purpose of uniforms it is generally considered that uniforms are a symbol of unity and pride and authority , especially those worn by public service employees. Conformity P3 An example of a uniform is a firefighter's protective uniform that they wear when they are running into a burning building, if they didn't wear it they could suffer serious injury or even death Uniform is important in the public services because it makes the recruits or officer feel a sense of pride in there chosen career, like wearing a badge of honour because you are serving queen and country. They also show that only a few people are willing to be the individual and stand up to people in authority if they know they were wrong Eg in Hofling one nurse didn't administer the injection they though was lethal. An example of this would be a sargent in the army because they are given the authority to give orders by the commanding officer who may have given them there promotion. An example of a prison would be HMP Preston Since April 2006 the IPCC has taken on responsibility for similar, serious complaints against HM Revenue and Customs and the Serious Organized Crime Agency in England and Wales. In April 2008, it additionally took on responsibility for serious complaints against UK Border Agency staff.