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Copy of Clean Air Act & Rachel Carson
Transcript of Copy of Clean Air Act & Rachel Carson
Clean Air Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 - First federal legislation regarding air pollution
Early attempt to address air pollution
Recognized air pollution as a problem that had to be studied, but did not enact major laws to enforce control
$5 million per year for a 5-year period to Public Health Service to study pollution's effects on people/environment Industrial Revolution damaged air quality
Factories and dense urban metropolises that arose from urbanization created health problems from the poor air
People called for action to address air pollution issues
Several state/local legislatures had already begun addressing air pollution, so federal government saw need for management on a national level "An Act to provide research and technical assistance relating to air pollution control" -Public Law 84-159 1955 1962 1960 Original Act
enacted Extended research
funding for 4
additional years Enforced principle provisions of 1955 Act and called for research by U.S. Surgeon General to discover health effects of an array of motor vehicle exhaust substances Clean Air Act of 1963 Air Quality Act of 1967 Clean Air Act of 1970 Established standards for pollution emissions
Set deadlines for stationary sources to comply with emissions standards
Gave local/federal agencies regulatory power over non-compliant corporations
Stressed research for techniques to minimize air pollution Authorized enforcement procedures that involved interstate transport of pollutants
Expanded research on air pollution Greater funding for research
Authorized establishment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Set requirements for State Implementation Plans to achieve the standards
Established New Source Performance Standards for stationary sources
Established National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
Requirements for control of motor vehicle emissions 1977 Amendments Provisions for Prevention of Significant Deterioration
Provisions for areas that are non-attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards 1990 Amendments Programs for Acid Deposition Control
Program for controlling 189 toxic pollutants
Program to phase out utilization of chemicals that damage ozone layer
Permit program requirements established
Changes to provisions for attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Expanded authority for enforcement Controversy Over Clean Air Act Clash between environmentalists and federal government over legislation
Federal government established lower air quality benchmark than recommended by Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, defying the committee's recommendations
Presidency asserted executive authority over Environmental Protection Agency in modifying enforcement of Clean Air Act
President's conciliatory approach to industrial polluters angered environmentalists
2002-2006: number of civil suits filed by government against industrial polluters decreased 70%
EPA and Congress fought for stricter enforcement rather than presidency's appeasement approach of bargains/settlements - some polluters were rewarded with tax subsidies for compliance rather than being punished
2007: EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson repudiated California's request for establishing stricter car emission standards, angering environmentalists
2008: White House's statement that EPA's public health air standards would remain the same angered EPA officials and Congress 1949: Stanford Research Institute participant Paul Magill discusses smog at the 1st air pollution conference Impact of the
Clean Air Act Act of 1955 brought air quality concerns to a nationwide level
Public polls revealed percentage of Americans who saw air pollution as a serious problem nearly doubled from 28% in 1965 to 55% in 1968
Authorized & provided needed funding for research on air pollution
Later legislation established federal control over regulation of air pollutants, significantly reducing the quantity of air pollutants nationwide
Ex: Motor vehicle emission & fuel standards, aircraft emission standards, Clean Fuel Vehicle programs, restriction of noise pollution
Ex: 2-step process to reduce SO2 emissions - 100 electric generating facilities greater than 100 megawatts faced a 3.5 million ton SO2 emission reduction by January 1995; facilities larger than 75 megawatts had to meet a January 2000 deadline Present-Day Air Quality June 2007: Counties where National Ambient Air Quality Standards have not been met and thus require action Rachel Carson
Attended Pennsylvania College for Women
Worked at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory
MA in Zoology - John Hopkins University
Taught at University of Maryland & John Hopkins University
Became a writer for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, later becoming a staff biologist and chief editor Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of his world. " "
Early Life 1907-1964 Major Accomplishments Created radio programs on marine life with Bureau of Fisheries and became 1 of 2 women employed by Bureau professionally
Investigated undersea terrain and assisted Navy in World War II
1941: Published Under the Sea-Wind - presented scientific material in poetic language
Authored ""Conservation in Action" and "Food from the Sea" - series directed at American public exploring wildlife refuges and seafood diet
1951: Published The Sea Around Us, a study of the ocean that became an 81-week NY Times bestseller
1956: Published The Edge of the Sea - new perspective for environmentalists on "ecology" - it became the study of "our living place"
1962: Published Silent Spring Silent Spring (1962) 4 years of research throughout U.S. and Europe
Documented dangers of herbicides and pesticides
Revealed long-term presence of toxic chemicals and threat of DDT to creatures such as songbirds
Provoked much controversy - pesticide industry campaigned to discredit Carson
Carson testified before Congressional committee
DDT was banned from use and U.S. Senate began an investigation of pesticides Significance to Environmental Movement Launched contemporary environmental movement through Silent Spring
Roused common American to become increasingly concerned about environment
Exposed dangers of pesticides - played vital role in banning DDT and other pesticides, as well as initiating research
Inspired movement that led to creation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Keystones of the Environmental Movement "Controversy over the Clean Air Act." Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., n.d.
Ellis-Christensen, Tricia, and O. Wallace. "What Is the Clean Air Act?" WiseGeek. Conjecture Corporation, n.d.
Fleming, James R., and Bethany R. Knorr. "History of the Clean Air Act." Ametsoc.org. American Meteorological Society, n.d.
Graham, Frank, Jr., Kevin Kilcullen, Richard H. Stroud, and Linda Lear. "Rachel Carson." Fws.gov. Northeast Region National Wildlife Refuge System, 31 Jan. 2012.
"History of the Clean Air Act." EPA.gov. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 Feb. 2012.
Kenney, Robyn, and Alexander Gastman. "Clean Air Act, United States." Eoearth.org. Encyclopedia of Earth, 23 June 2010.
Lear, Linda. "The Life and Legacy of Rachel Carson." Rachelcarson.org. Connecticut College, 2000.
Lewis, Jone J. "Rachel Carson Quotes." Womenshistory.about.com. About.com, n.d.
Lewis, Jone J. "Rachel Carson." Womenshistory.about.com. About.com, n.d.
Roman, Alejandra, and Peter Saundry. "Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, United States." Eoearth.org. Encyclopedia of Earth, 5 July 2007. Works Cited