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Copy of Evidence-Based Teaching - for physics

Presentation for TLCs & PNCs at "Big Spring Meeting" - IOP National Teachers CPD Conference 2013
by

David Cameron

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Evidence-Based Teaching - for physics

class size /
resources head promote/participate in teacher development (school) +0.8, Robinson
feedback (teacher) +0.8, Higgins
lack of disruptive students (teacher) +0.8, Hattie
meta-cognition (teacher) +0.7, Higgins
peer tutoring (teacher) +0.5, Higgins
audio-visual aids (teacher) +0.2, Hattie
teaching assistants (school) 0.0, Higgins
ability grouping (school) 0.0, Higgins
uniform (school) 0.0, Higgins Work on initial question, with support:
Identifying forces - Q7 Students construct meaning Jon Clarke, Clare Thomson, David Cameron, IOP Evidence-Based Teaching -
for Physics What evidence is there? For instance, Professor Hattie's synthesis "Visible Learning" considers:
Over 900 meta-analyses of 50 000 peer-reviewed research articles reporting 150 000 effect sizes involving 240 million students!
Summarized as ~100 influences

Other studies too, e.g. Marzano's meta-study, analysed over 4000 peer-reviewed effect sizes Derived from Introducing a physics concept require the learner to make a construct
require reasoning not just reproduction
give the student thinking time
give the student feedback
ensure teacher feedback
have a high participation rate
are fun Evidence-based teaching resources • Invite group discussion with a spokesperson as a way of lowering the stakes and encouraging collaborative learning.
• Don’t use non-essential technical language or formulae as shorthand for physical laws during the early stages of learning.
• Use pupils’ own everyday language as far as possible and encourage them to do the same until concepts are well established.
• Ensure that essential terminology is clearly defined and used in context, and that understanding is checked.
• Reinforce underlying physical principles first rather than starting with formulae. Girls in Physics, p.39 Page 27 Observe
phenomenon Attempt to explain Develop formal understanding Develop underlying maths Meet formal maths Engaging, hands-on practical
with POE:
predict - observe - explain Small groups
Thinking time
Informal language Start offering feedback to groups
Guide them towards "correct" explanation
Introduce formal language Is this topic mathematical, e.g. speed?
Ensure understanding of underlying concepts
e.g. speed increases as time decreases As a last step, introduce the formal maths
e.g. speed = distance ________
time What is evidence-based teaching? Over to you... What are Hattie's findings? league tables "Promoting and participating in teacher learning and development"
Twice the effect size of anything else! "For county, local education authority maintained, comprehensive [secondary] schools (the largest single group), inspection did not improve [GCSE] examination achievement" "data is fully consistent with Ofsted inspections having adverse effects on the current exam performances of schools inspected" "only a handful of schools’ future performances can be separated from both the overall mean and from one another with an acceptable degree of precision... school league tables, including value-added ones, have very little to offer as guides to school choice." "Teachers Make a Difference: What is the research evidence?", John Hattie, http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/limestonecoast/files/pages/new%20page/PLC/teachers_make_a_difference.pdf Petty and GiP Newton's 3rd law of motion Definition N's 3rd law
http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-physics/action-and-reaction-trolleys Average effect size (ES)
is 0.4

1.0 is equivalent to:
advance of one year
improving rate of learning by 50%
a two-grade leap in GCSE average innovation average teacher improving rate of learning by 50% Rank the following Which are best at improving student outcomes? meta-cognition (teacher)
teaching assistants (school)
lack of disruptive students (teacher)
audio-visual aids (teacher)
uniform (school)
peer tutoring (teacher)
head promote/participate in teacher development (school)
ability grouping (school)
feedback (teacher) Petty's book Work of Hattie, Marzano, etc. summarized and explored in a book:
"Evidence-based Teaching: A practical approach", Petty
best for teachers? Accessible teaching examples

There are two related books:
"Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning", Hattie
best for those planning CPD, such as TLCs?

"Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement", Hattie
best for those considering either whole-school or national education policy, such as headteachers or government advisers? IOP's SPT IOP's Supporting Physics Teaching (SPT) resources
Download free from: talkphysics.org University of York's Evidence-based Practice in Science Education (EPSE) project, e.g. their diagnostic questions - http://www.york.ac.uk/education/research/cirse/older/epse/resources/ York's EPSE Other IOP resources, such as... Girls in Physics (GiP) action pack for teachers - http://www.iop.org/education/teacher/support/girls_physics/action_pack/page_41739.html Girls in Physics Teaching Radioactivity DVD - http://www.iop.org/education/teacher/resources/radioactivity/page_41558.html Teaching Radioactivity an informal opportunity to share practice with other teachers:
http://talkphysics.org Sutton Trust "Guidance for teachers and schools on how to use their resources to improve the attainment of disadvantaged pupils" Teaching and Learning Toolkit Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation, lead author Higgins
http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/ Practical Diagnostic Qs Apply understanding Engaging opening Formalise understanding Identify misconceptions
Feedback N's 3rd:
If there is a force exerted by A acting on B, then there will be an equivalent force exerted by B acting on A.
SPT Fo 01 PN Come back together in new small groups to solve new Q:
Identifying forces - Q9 Evidence in other areas Disadvantaged students Educational policy What are the biggest influences on student learning? Headteacher's school policies?
Teacher?
Student's friends?
Household's socio-economic status? Factors outside the school are the most significant, but of the factors within schools' control, which teacher they have is most important, explaining ~30% of variance in achievement. School management What's the single most effective action headteachers can take? "Summary of the the Best Evidence Synthesis", Robinson, Hohepa, Lloyd, p2, http://www.curee.co.uk/files/publication/1260453707/Robinson%20Summary%20Extended%20Version.pdf Sutton Trust "Teaching and Learning Toolkit" Presents most effective interventions (like much of Hattie), which are best for disadvantaged students, at low cost.

Top 3:
Feedback, 9 months' gain
Meta-cognition, 8 months' gain
Peer tutoring, 6 months' gain

Each for about a fifth the cost of a teaching assistant (which gives
0 months' gain) Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation, lead author Higgins
http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit OFSTED SHAW, NEWTON, AITKIN & DARNELL, http://www.mendeley.com/research/ofsted-inspections-secondary-schools-make-difference-gcse-results/ Rosenthal, http://www.inspectieloket.nl/Images/35%20Do%20school%20inspections%20improve%20school%20quality%20Ofsted_tcm296-282222.pdf "The limitations of using school league tables to inform school choice", Leckie & Goldstein, http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/team/hg/full-publications/2009/league-tables-and-school-choice.pdf Note Different authors define these in different ways.

Even three different reports of the same work (Hattie's original paper, Petty's book, Petty's online work) present influences with different names and effect sizes!

I suggest focussing on the "big picture" - by-and-large the studies report that similar interventions are effective on effect sizes Hattie, "Influences on student learning", 1999: http://www.education.auckland.ac.nz/webdav/site/education/shared/hattie/docs/influences-on-student-learning.pdf
Hattie, Visible Learning: a synthesis, p15 Does improve results? Can guide parents' school choice? compare with
other countries "Simply spending more on children from less affluent backgrounds, however, will not necessarily improve their learning or their aspirations. There is no direct link between spending on schools and outcomes for pupils."

"Our own modelling of school resources finds per pupil expenditure to have significant and positive associations with students’ chances of being low achievers but, as we report, the association with reducing the PTR [pupil-teacher ratio] is much more modest, though positive; and it has lower statistical significance than the effect of per pupil expenditure" Do affect student outcomes? PISA (OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment) shows that:
UK is average for reading & maths, above-average for science How does the English education system type of school Does the affect student outcomes? quality state /
independent structure "the biggest difference between so called “good” schools and “bad” schools is the difference in the students attending the schools. Some schools get all their students five good grades at GCSE including English and mathematics, and some get hardly any, but only 7% of the variation between schools on this standard benchmark is due to the effect of the school. The other 93% is due to factors over which the school has no control . "
"Teacher quality: why it matters, and how to get more of it", Dylan Wiliam
http://www.dylanwiliam.org/Dylan_Wiliams_website/Papers_04-12_files/Spectator%20talk.doc

"While students’ social and economic circumstances are the most important factors explaining their educational results, we find that about 14 per cent of the incidence of low achievement is attributable to school quality."
http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2063-education-schools-achievement.pdf
Tackling low educational achievement

"up to 75% of school variation in 16 year old attainment at GCSE associated with pupil intake factors. But school factors can raise attainment by up to 14 GCSE points for average pupils"
http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/6482/1/Schools,_Education_and_Social_Exclusion.pdf
Schools, Education and Social Exclusion "What they have all done, both in absolute terms and relative to their surrounding schools, is to substantially reduce the percentage of students eligible for [free school meals] FSM since becoming Academies", "there is no clear evidence here that Academies work to produce better results than the kinds of schools they replaced", "their potential for increasing inequity for no gain in attainment will concern us more and more"
http://eprints.bham.ac.uk/598/1/Academies_paper4,_JEP.pdf

"in maths and science, the effect of voluntary-aided schools is ... insignificant in the “true” regression."
Is Free School Meal Status a Valid Proxy for Socio-Economic Status (in Schools Research)? http://cee.lse.ac.uk/ceedps/ceedp84.pdf

"competitive schemes such as the Cleveland Voucher Experiment (McGuinn and Hess 2000) and the Milwaukee Charter Scheme (Hess 2000) have produced no obvious reaction (other than symbolic ones by marketers and teachers' unions) and little discernible change in the administration or leadership of publicly-funded schools."
Size matters: does school choice lead to 'spirals of decline'? http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00001522.htm

“pupils who attend grammar schools appear to achieve between zero and three-quarters of a GCSE grade per subject more than ‘similar’ pupils in other schools. This finding is broadly consistent with the results of the best previous studies.” “the models that estimate positive grammar school effects also appear to estimate similar sized ‘effects’ for the progress made by those same pupils in primary school may also lend weight to a preference for placing the true grammar school effect at the lower end of this range.”
Evidence on the Effects of Selective Educational Systems http://www.suttontrust.com/research/evidence-on-the-effects-of-selective-educational-systems/

"schools respond to being granted increased autonomy (through the academy conversion) by sharply increasing the ‘quality’ of their pupil intake at year 7. However, this result is (largely) driven by the early cohorts of schools that converted to an academy school."
Changing School Autonomy: Academy schools and their introduction to England's Education http://cee.lse.ac.uk/ceedps/ceedp123.pdf

"our results cast some doubt on the arguments the advocates of choice and competition promote. It is only in a relatively small proportion of English state primary schools that we can uncover a positive link between pupil achievement and choice and competition and, even here, the results point to such pressures only operating in a specific sub-set of the primary school market."
Competition, Choice and Primary School Performance http://www.cepr.org/meets/wkcn/3/3525/papers/gibbons.pdf community / academy /
voluntary-aided / charter / free “public schools outscore privately managed schools by 20 score points once the socio-economic background is accounted for”.
“77% of the between schools differences in student performance in the United Kingdom is explained by differences in socio-economic background”
A significant contradiction with the study “THE EFFECT OF SCHOOL QUALITY ON EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND WAGES”. How did each allow for socio-economic status?
VIEWING THE UNITED KINGDOM SCHOOL SYSTEM THROUGH THE PRISM OF PISA
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/33/8/46624007.pdf

"attending a selective school (either a government grammer school or a private school) impacts positively and significantly on educational outcomes both for men and women"
http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk/3911/1/3911.pdf
THE EFFECT OF SCHOOL QUALITY ON EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND WAGES “In Finland inspections rest mainly on schools and the school-maintaining bodies conducting self-evaluations.” What makes school systems perform? http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/30/24/33858946.pdf "This research supports much of the work carried out earlier this century on ability grouping, which generally showed little or no impact on overall pupil attainment." "Non-linearity: Reducing class size to 13-15 students (as the research shows is necessary to get any substantial benefit) ... the teacher salary bill would need to be more than doubled"

"As for class sizes, if they were cut from 30 to 20, the average pupil would gain four months' learning a year. But classes of 20 would mean recruiting an extra 150,000 teachers to English schools and, assuming they were all weaker than those we now have, pupil progress would fall by five months a year." 13-15
students "Improving educational achievement: the impact of
class-size reduction and policy alternatives", Dylan Wiliam & Laura Goe,
http://www.dylanwiliam.org/Dylan_Wiliams_website/Papers_04-12_files/Patterson%20briefing%20v2.doc http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2011/jan/18/teaching-methods-government-reforms
[note - not an academic paper] Wiliam Effect size
0.13 Effect size of 0.13
40th most effective out of 46 suggested interventions
"Reducing class sizes may be but one means to these ends, although it does not appear to be among the most effective of all policies that could be introduced." http://wewe2025292.wikispaces.com/file/view/The+paradox+of+reducing+class+size+and+improving.pdf
Hattie "The paradox of reducing class size and improving learning outcomes" No direct link "Tackling low educational achievement", Robert Cassen and Geeta Kingdon,
http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2063-education-schools-achievement.pdf "Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning: Summary for Schools Spending the Pupil Premium", Higgins,
http://www.suttontrust.com/research/toolkit-of-strategies-to-improve-learning/ PISA, "PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do, volume I"
http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/48852548.pdf PISA 2009 501 Estonia, 15th
reading 494, 19th
489 Portugal, 22nd In more detail, UK has scores with the following confidence intervals: 498 Norway, 17th
mathematics 492, 21st
487 Portugal, 25th 522 Netherlands, 9th
science 514, 11th
508 Ireland, 13th p56, 58, 136, 137, 153, 154
PISA, "PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do, volume I"
http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/48852548.pdf "countries with successful PISA performance place social and cultural disparities at the centre of educational innovation strategies"

"strong basic education systems tend to succeed by providing good quality support for students, teachers and schools in the context of an integrated rather than differentiated school structure"

"those countries with the more successful PISA results have tackled educational reforms and implemented new models of school-system governance at an early stage, and have conducted this process systematically and continuously" What makes school
systems perform? http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/30/24/33858946.pdf
PISA, "WHAT MAKES SCHOOL SYSTEMS PERFORM?" ROSE (Relevance of Science Education) shows that:
England scores badly for "science and technology are important for society"
Girls score lower than boys ROSE, "The ROSE project: An overview and key findings",
http://roseproject.no/network/countries/norway/eng/nor-Sjoberg-Schreiner-overview-2010.pdf "There is no robust evidence that introducing a school uniform will improve academic performance, behaviour or attendance." School uniforms http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/school-uniforms Ability grouping http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00001359.htm
Ability grouping in the secondary school: the effects on academic achievement and pupils’ self-esteem “We need more evidence-based policy making” Michael Gove, 16 June 2010, Finland & South Korea Inspections in the highest-performing education systems: In South Korea, "[s]chools are evaluated annually by external monitoring groups established by the provincial education offices ... School reviews are not used punitively; rather, struggling schools are given administrative advice about how to improve." South Korea: System and School Organization
http://www.ncee.org/programs-affiliates/center-on-international-education-benchmarking/top-performing-countries/south-korea-overview/south-korea-system-and-school-organization/ http://www.education.gov.uk/inthenews/speeches/a0061371/michael-gove-to-the-national-college-annual-conference-birmingham monitor learning and provide feedback*
influence surface and deep student outcomes*
have a deep understanding of their subject*
create an optimal classroom climate for learning
believe that all students can reach the success criteria Being social scientists "[R]esearch results in the physical sciences are not markedly more consistent than those in the social sciences" "How hard is hard science, how soft is soft science? The empirical cumulativeness of research", Hedges, Larry V. American Psychologist, Vol 42(5), May 1987, 443-455
Cited in "Nonsense on Stilts: How to tell science from bunk", Massimo Pigliucci, University of Chicago Press, 2010 Hedges 1987 comparison of particle physics with behavioural and social psychology: "Expert" vs "Experienced" teachers using simulations and gaming
self-reported grades
home environment
feedback
ability grouping/tracking/streaming
providing worked examples
teacher subject matter knowledge
matching teaching with student learning styles
providing formative evaluation to teachers High
self-reported grades (+1.44)
providing formative evaluation to teachers
feedback

Medium
using simulations and gaming
home environment
providing worked examples

Low
matching teaching with student learning styles
ability grouping/tracking/streaming
teacher subject matter knowledge (+0.09) Which influences have greatest impact? Hattie, Visible Learning for Teacher, p255, note "self-reported grades" listed there as "student expectations" and elsewhere as "how to develop high expectations for each student" Sort according to impact,
3 of each:
high (ES>0.60)
medium (0.3<ES<0.6)
low (ES<0.3) What distinguishes "expert" from merely "experienced" teachers? 3 factors highlighted* explain 80% of variance between expert and experienced teachers [## but this neglects the affective attributes?]

Let's apply these to a forces lesson for 11-14 year olds "Information given to the learner and/or the teacher about the learner’s performance relative to learning goals"
"Most powerful when it is from the student to the teacher"
Top of Sutton "Toolkit" - most cost-effective intervention to improve learning for students on free school meals

E.g. use of "Discussion questions" from SPT Fo 01 TA 1

"Most feedback that students obtained in any day in classrooms was from other students, and most of this feedback was incorrect" Feedback "Not enough to set tasks that required reproduction: they set challenging goals. This included surface learning and deep learning goals."

"It is not the specificity of the goals but the difficulty that is crucial to success."

"The performances of the students who have the most challenging goals are over 250 percent higher..."

E.g. "Plan a two-minute presentation for the class about the forces acting on a bus at different points in a journey" Surface & deep - challenging goals Petty, Evidence-based Teaching, p314 extended period
involvement of external experts
engage teachers sufficiently to deepen their knowledge and extend their skills
challenge teachers' prevailing discourse and conceptions about learning, or challenging teachers how to teach particular curricula more effectively
teachers talking to teachers
school leadership supported opportunities to learn
none of these related to influences on student outcomes - funding / release time / voluntary vs. compulsory involvement Final thoughts Phys Ed IOP's Physics Education, peer-reviewed journal

Available to any Affiliated Schools & Colleges, and to all IOP members via MyIOP Think of a CPD session you ran recently and a physics lesson that CPD could apply to.

How could we apply the main characteristics of expert teachers to improve a physics lesson?
improve monitoring and feedback
set more challenging goals
deepen understanding of the subject Your task ## What prompts are we asking here to feedback to the plenary? Just asking a few tables for a good example from their discussion? Feedback Study of 25 exceptional teachers - results in top 1% nationally for over 6 years but whose students did much worse in other subjects. Australian equivalent to A-levels in schools across all socio-economic groups.
## Plenty more on that page (affective attributes, teaching methods)... Effective teaching in high-stakes exams today - contents of a physics lesson

in a year's time? What does evidence say about how we plan CPD? E.g. coaching might be 6x more effective in changing student outcomes than training

today - just three (important!) aspects of teaching

lots of rich, robust evidence out there, e.g. other teaching interventions, whole-school policies, and national educational policies
can explore more at your own leisure via next frame of this presentation Future focus? "[T]hese teachers were not exam driven. They often deliberately chose the most difficult options (challenge) and thought nothing of going beyond the syllabus if it was interesting or relevant to deep understanding (SOLO taxonomy)." "Experienced and expert teachers did not differ in the amount of knowledge of their subject, or knowledge about teaching. But they did differ in the depth (SOLO level) of their understanding.

Their subject knowledge was more integrated, interrelated and built around general principles. For example, they related what they taught to prior learning and to other subjects."

On the next slide, we give some examples about student learning to illustrate the concept of SOLO taxonomy. Deep understanding Petty, Evidence-based Teaching, p313 Joyce, B., and B. Showers. (1995). Student Achievement Through Staff Development: Fundamentals of School Renewal
cited by Hattie, Visible Learning for Teachers, p64 TLC break-out sessions (PNCs have their own workshops now)

How can teachers integrate these ideas into physics lessons?
Could you use this session in schools (and give us ideas for improving it)?
What do these ideas say about future development of SPT? Break-out "meta-sessions" What works best in professional development Hattie, Visible Learning: a Synthesis, Hattie, p120 Diagnostic
question SPT Fo 01 Ta 1 Hattie, Visible Learning: a Synthesis, p173 & 176
Hattie, Visible Learning for Teacher, p127
*Hattie, VLaS, p117 "tested hypotheses about the effects of their teaching"
http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/approaches/feedback ES 1.09* ES 1.02 ES 1.37 Hattie, Visible Learning: a Synthesis, p164
Petty, Evidence-based Teaching, p312 Prestructural - e.g. "tell me anything about a force"
Surface
Unistructural - "name one force acting on the crate"
Multistructural - "draw force arrows for all the forces acting on the crate"
Deep
Relational - "draw a labelled diagram for an apple hanging from a tree branch"
Extended Abstract - "compare these diagrams with that of a bus accelerating from traffic lights" Deep understanding Petty, Evidence-based Teaching, p18-19
http://pamhook.com/wiki/SOLO_Taxonomy_versus_Bloom%27s_Taxonomy
http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/solo.htm Structure of observed learning outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy Prestructural

Unistructural

Multistructural

Relational

Extended Abstract Deep understanding Last frame was SOLO for students - Hattie found it was characteristic of expert teachers' understanding: Hattie, Visible Learning: a synthesis, p117
Hattie, Visible Learning for Teachers, p24-30
Petty, Evidence-based Teaching, p312 Generally -
pick a teaching intervention with a high, proven effect size

Specifically -
apply the main characteristics of expert teachers to physics lessons:
improve monitoring and feedback
set more challenging goals
deepen understanding of the subject

This presentation is online at
http://prezi.com/user/jcphysics/ Evidence-based teaching Thankfully for us, that looks a lot like the SPN Partner Schools... "Too often lists of 'what works' provide another set of recommendations, devoid of underlying theory or messages"

The evidence says: "most programs and methods that worked best were based on heavy dollops of feedback"

OFSTED asks for the same: "teachers monitor pupils’ progress in lessons and use the information well to adapt their teaching"

But some teachers interpret this as a barrier: "But if I teach [that way], how can I prove to OFSTED that my students have learnt something every 20-minutes during the lesson?" Explanatory story, not a "what works" recipe Hattie, Visible Learning: a Synthesis, p3
Oral feedback during a "Girls in Physics" CPD session with Jon Clarke on 14/1/2013
OFSTED, School Inspection Handbook, p34, http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/school-inspection-handbook Petty, Evidence-based Teaching, p18-19
http://pamhook.com/wiki/SOLO_Taxonomy_versus_Bloom%27s_Taxonomy
http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/solo.htm e.g. "I will plan an activity about forces"

"what physics content do I need in my next forces lesson activity?"
"what are the most effective physics content & pedagogy for the activities in this lesson?"
"how does this content & pedagogy relate to their earlier learning about electricity, magnets and energy?"
"how can I best use my students' existing experiences & learning to improve their future learning?" OFSTED report http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/pupil-premium-how-schools-are-spending-funding-successfully-maximise-achievement , p6 "Where schools were less successful in spending the funding, they tended to have at least some of the following characteristics. They ... spent the funding indiscriminately on teaching assistants, with little impact" "Where schools spent the Pupil Premium funding successfully to improve achievement, they shared many of the following characteristics. They ... drew on research evidence (such as the Sutton Trust toolkit) and evidence from their own and others’ experience to allocate the funding to the activities that were most likely to have an impact on improving achievement"
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