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RAF - Red Army Fraction

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Asne Senberg

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of RAF - Red Army Fraction

Consequences and trial (interesting facts)
Third Generation and break-up 1982-1998
Protest is when I say this does not please me. Resistance is when I ensure what does not please me occurs no more.
U. Meinhof
First Generation
- aims are understandable -> generation-conflict
- current topics (e.g. anti-imperialism, anti-capitalism, media manipulation)

- the end does not justify the means in this case
many civilians died
- loss of concept -> irrational actions

RAF - Red Army Fraction

- political and social problems
- Ideology and aims
- strategy
- 1. generation
- 2. generation
- 3. generation
- consequences and interesting facts
- evaluation
- sources

Ideology and aims

Political and social problems:
Second Generation
Was stimmt? - RAF Die wichtigsten Antworten (2007, Herder Verlag)
Rudi Dutschke, Andreas Baader und die RAF (Hamburger Edition 2005)
Für die RAF war er das System, für mich der Vater (Piper. 2007)

1) before:
-> death of B. Ohnesorg

2) beginning:
-> 2nd April 1968
-> Try to murder Rudi Dutschke
-> Process against fire starters
-> concept:
urban guerilla

2) RAF:
-> free of Baader from prison
-> founding of RAF
-> first deaths

3) 1972-attacks: "may offensive"
-> manhunt: Action water hammer
-> arrest of the main leaders of the RAF
lack september"
->hunger strikes and death of Holger Meins

-Andreas Baader:
->egoistic, violence welcome
->dominated the perspective of group
->suicide 1977 (in prison)

-Gudrun Ensslin:
->"good girl" image
->studies of philosophy, Anglistics and Germanistics
->"Studio New Literature"
->guiding spirit of the band

-Ulrike Meinhof:
->journalist (magazine "konkret")
->hanged in prison cell 1976

- redirection of the RAF
- 20 fixed members and 250 assistants
- various murders -> bomb attack in the US air base in Frankfurt
- until 1990 the RAF killed 5 other important people
- the government changed their attitude towards the terrorists
- 1992 GSG 9 mission -> Wolfgang Grams died and Birgit Hogefeld was catched
- 1998 the RAF declared their break-up
Wolfgang Grams
: 6th March 1953 - 27th Juny 1993
- had negative experiences from the Vietnam war
- joined the RAF in 1972 when the first generation was imprisoned
- died inbetween the GSG 9 mission in Bad Kleinen

Birgit Hogefeld
: *27th July 1956
- studied law
- was one of the leaders of the third generation and was trialed for most of the murders in the 80s
- the police catched her in 1993
- since 2011 she is not im-
prisoned anymore, she was
the last member of the RAF
sitting in jail
- Horst Mahler joined the NPD after he came out of prison
- some RAF members are still searched by the BKA -> bomb attack in the jail of Weiterstadt
- conspiracy theories about the GSG9 mission
-> books and songs about this topic: Christoph Hein "In seiner frühen Kindheit ein Garten"
- security system has been increased
- critism changed nothing in society
- maybe greatest crisis of the German state
Thank you for your attention!

student protest movement in the 60s West Germany
Cold War, end of colonialism, Vietnam War
most discussed: racism, women's liberation, anti-imperialism
suspicion against the authority of the state
incomplete Nazi rehabilitation and biased conservative media control
wished for armed class struggle against the government
destroy the legend of the invulnerability of the state
socialists like Marx, Lenin, Mao and Fidel Castro as inspiration
take part at the international guerilla war
fight the capitalistic world and injustice
not involved in the classic political system
- targeted assassination attempts against leaders in government and business
- most important paper of the RAF : "Erklärung zur Sache"
- aim: release of the imprisoned comrades
- dual strategy: 1. personalization of their attacks
2. internationalization
- German embassy in Stockholm was occupied
--> release of 26 prisoners was demanded
- escalation of the violence -> internationalization of terrorism
- agreement of hijacking the Lufthansa plane
--> RAF destroyed the agreement on the use of violence of the first generation


- use of violence: essential instrument
- tactics of 'urban-guerrilla'
- shooting, kidnapping and setting fire
- internationalization later
- propaganda -> Meinhof's and Ensslin's scripts

- support of the public -> control of the government
- typical because of their ideology
- not typical because of the support
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