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AP Bio- Communication 2: Hormonal Control

2 of 5 of my Communication Domain. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet.Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke.
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David Knuffke

on 24 June 2014

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Transcript of AP Bio- Communication 2: Hormonal Control

Hormonal Control
Theory
Applications
Have Hormones, Too!
Things Like This Don't Just Happen.
Coordination is Required!
Big Questions
Why is communication between cells necessary?

How is cellular communication used in multicellular life?

How do mechanisms of cellular communication demonstrate a shared evolutionary history among organisms?
How Cells Communicate
The 3 Phases of Signal Reception
Why Cells Communicate (Multicellular Version)
Local Signals
Distance Signals
Molecules are Required!
Two Kinds of Hormone Molecules
Advanced
Considerations
The ligand isn't important.
The Response is!
Cells
Amplify
A Message
The Role of the "
Second Messenger
"
Things Get Complicated Quickly
Pheromones!
Nervous Systems (Not Now!)
Metamorphosis in Arthropods
The Endocrine System
Here They All Are!
Plants
Mammals
Make Sure You Can:
Compare the uses of cell signaling in different lineages of organisms.

Identify common features in all cell signaling mechanisms.
Compare different modes of cell signaling in animal systems

Diagram the processes by which signal transduction occurs in multicellular animals, including steroid and lipid hormone signaling pathways

Diagram the regulatory effects of various hormones in animals and plants, at the cellular and system-wide levels of organization.
Any Questions?
The Immune System demonstrates Local Signaling
Gametes & Sexiness!
The Adrenal glands are involved in producing stress hormones:
Adrenal Medulla
:
Epinephrine
and
Norepinephrine
-Short-Term ("
fight or flight
") Response
Adrenal Cortex
:
Corticoids
- Long-Term Response
Don't Forget Me!
Modes of Endocrine Function
The Master Gland & The Thermostat
Pituitary Hormones
Released by cells, received by neighbors
Different Chemistry
Different Reception
Different Responses
An
Epinephrine
("
Adrenaline
") Receptor
What kind of hormone is epinephrine?
Epinephrine signal transduction is mediated by
G-Protein linked receptors.

G-Proteins are very common signal relay proteins for membrane receptor ligands.

"G-Protein" means it is associated with
GTP

AMP is high when ATP is low
Lipid Hormones Tend To Have Longer Term Effects than Peptides
Estrogen
is responsible for long term changes in sexual cycles (menstruation, puberty).

Estrogen activates long term responses by changing protein expression in cells.

{
Vitellogenin
is a precursor to nutritive egg yolk proteins present in all egg producing female animals}
The Systems that send distance signals are the nervous and endocrine systems.
These are the major regulatory systems in animals.
There is a good deal of interplay between all signaling systems
Generally speaking, nervous and endocrine systems have complementary purposes.

Nervous system
: quick, fast, regulation. More on that later.

Endocrine system
: long term, regular regulation.

Both systems interact
Internal signalling molecules released due to external ("first") signals
Three major hormones are responsible for the total breakdown and reorganization of juvenile arthropods into adult forms (and its ensuing awesomeness).
Endocrine glands respond from nervous system cues, or from hormones made by other endocrine glands.

The
Brain
is the ultimate seat of control of endocrine and nervous systems
The pituitary gland is typically referred to as the "
master gland
"
It makes control hormones for many other glands throughout the body.
Input from the
hypothalamus
is crucial.
The pituitary has two distinct lobes that make distinct hormones.
All pituitary hormones are peptidyl.
The thyroid makes two hormones (
T3
and
T4
) which are involved in regulating metabolism.

Iodine is necessary for proper thyroid function
A "goiter" due to insufficient iodine in the diet
The parathyroids produce
parathyroid hormone
(
PTH
), which is involved in regulating calcium levels in the blood.

Calcium is an important second messenger in many cellular processes.
A Tour Of Select Glands
The
gonads
(
ovaries
and
testes
) produce the sex hormones which control:
Gamete production
Development of
secondary sex characteristics
(what are the primary ones?)
The regulation of the
menstrual cycle
is the responsibility of four major hormones
Pituitary Hormones:
FSH
- Follicle stimulating hormone.
LH
- Leutenizing hormone
Trigger development and release of a mature
ovum
(inside a
follicle
).

Ovarian Hormones:
Estrogen
Progesterone
Are involved in the development and maintenance of the uterine lining (the
endometrium
)

This is a very important thing that you need to understand.
A bunch of very cool feedback loops.
The human menstural cycle is 28 days, EXACTLY & ALWAYS!!!

:)
We're not going to spend a lot of time here.

Note: Same hormones involved here as in female gamete production, with ONE major difference.
Auxin & Apical Dominance
Gibberellin and lots of things
Absisic Acid Prevents Growth
Ethylene is Awesome!
Leaf Abscision is Complex!
Some Major Plant Responses
Auxin
Production at the
Apical Bud
determines the direction of plant growth
Gibberellin
treatment leads to "
bolting
" in growing plants & accelerated fruit ripening
Intake of water in germinating seeds leads to gibberelin production and the breakdown of stored starch to power
cotyledon
growth
Decreasing [
ABA
] leads to
germination
precocious!
Ethylene
is a gas!
It triggers growth
& Fruit Ripening
Increased ethylene is associated with the "
triple response
" in young plants, a reaction to encountering an overhead blockage during growth
Leads To
Ethylene response mutants
Abscision
(loss of leaves),
involves interactions between many hormones, including ethylene, gibberelin, and absisic acid
Epinephrine is a polar amine ligand
A typical
neuroendocrine
signaling pathway
An example of positive feedback
An example of negative feedback
Note:
This is a review of "Cellular Communication"
"
ligands
"
Signaling Molecules produced by one organism that are recieved by another organism
Blood-Calcium regulation feedback loop
Brain-Thyroid feedback loop
Full transcript