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Transcript of INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
A Picture is worth a thousand words. The use of the different types of graphic organizers enhances teaching and learning. Figure 11. a-e Types of graphic organizers (Source: Jane D. Hill, et al., Classroom Instruction that works with English Language, USA: Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning, 2006)
Vocabulary Terms and Phrases
Provides the most important characteristics of a term or phrase, along with examples that further describe it.
Students need to have enough information to describe the term or phrase accurately and should have no misconceptions about its meaning, though they may have only surface- level understand.
Includes a chronology of important events that occurred between two points in time. (Example: The events that occurred between on November 22, 1963, and his burial on November 25.)
Used for events that occurred at a specific time and place, had specific participants, lasted for a specific duration of time, involved a specific sequence of events, were caused by specific events, and had specific effects.
Generalizations are statements for which examples can be provided. Principles are specific types of generalizations that deal with relationships.
Cause/ effect principles articulate causal relationships whereas correlational principles describe relationships that are not necessarily causal but in which a change in one factor is associated with a change in another factor.
Used for events that produce a product or an effect. Causes may range from simple and singular (e.g., a game being lost because a player dropped the ball) to complex networks
(e.g., the events leading up to the U.S. Civil War).
The Narrative Frame
The narrative or story frame commonly contains the following elements:
1. Characters: the characteristics of the main characters in the story.
2. Setting: the time, place, and context in which the information took place.
3. Initiating event: the event that starts the action rolling in the story.
4. Internal response: how the main characters react emotionally to the initiating event
5. Goal: what the main characters decide to do as a reaction to the initiating event
6. Consequence: how the main characters try to accomplish the goal
7. Resolution: how the goal turns out
Components 3-7 are sometimes repeated to create what is called an
Value Integration techniques / tools
1. Value Sheet – It consists of a provocative statement and a series of questions duplicated on a sheet of paper. The purpose of the provocative statement is to raise an issue that have a value implication for students.
2. Value-clarifying question: Can we love our country even if we can speak English better than Filipino? Can we claim we love our country even if we do not speak the national language? Is there really a need for a national language?
3. Voting- The teacher asks questions which require the students to take a stand on issues by raising their hands. e.g. Are you for the school policy on no fieldtrip? Each student is asked to support his/her stand.
4. Rank ordering- Words or statements are placed on the blackboard and the students are asked to rank them in order of their preference. Then each student is asked to explain his rank ordering.
5. Picture without a caption – The students will be asked to write a caption for a picture without a caption. Students will be asked to explain their caption
6. Value continuum- A value-laden statement is presented to the students. Each student is asked to express his degree of agreement or disagreement by encircling the letter that corresponds to his response in the Likert scale: SA- Strongly Agree, A- Agree, U- Undecided, D- Disagree, SD- Strongly Disagree
7. Devil’s advocate- The teacher acts as contravida in the first part of the lesson. In doing so, she/he stimulates the class to argue, to debate with him/her making the class highly interactive. Before the class ends, however, teacher makes clear his/her stand to clear all doubts and confusion.
8. Unfinished sentences- An unfinished sentence is written on the board and the students are asked to complete it by injecting their thoughts about something.e.g. If I were Jose Rizal, I…. The students will be asked to share and explain their stand.
9. Conflict story- Best Example for this is, Shall we allow our best teachers, nurses, medical doctors and other professionals to contribute to the brain drain or keep them here to compete for the scarce job offerings and contribute to unemployment?
All these techniques demand oral communication. If we learn language best by speaking it, then these are excellent tools for language teaching. More than acquisition of language skills, the teacher is engaged in value education.
Source: Principles and Strategies of Teaching 2 (Book)
Corpuz, Brenda B. et al. (2006) Instructional Materials for Language Teaching"pg. 100-105