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AP Psych Chapter 18

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Janet Neyer

on 23 March 2016

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Transcript of AP Psych Chapter 18

Chapter 18
Social Psychology
The study of how individuals behave in a group
Our behavior is affected by our inner attitudes as well as by external social influences (Myers).
Attribution Theory
our desire to want to give a cause for someone's behavior; for example, serial killers must have had bad childhoods
Fundamental Attribution Error
our tendency to assume people are what they do; for example, if they drive eratically, they must be bad drivers or bad people
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
asking a small favor first makes it more likely someone will do a large favor for you
set of expectations about a social position that defines how those in the position ought to behave
Cognitive Dissonance
we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
example- when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
With a partner, identify the cognitive dissonance in this story.
The Fox and the Grapes
ONE hot summer’s day a Fox was strolling through an orchard till he came to a bunch of grapes just ripening on a vine which had been trained over a lofty branch. “Just the things to quench my thirst,” quoth he. Drawing back a few paces, he took a run and a jump, and just missed the bunch. Turning round again with a One, Two, Three, he jumped up, but with no greater success. Again and again he tried after the tempting morsel, but at last had to give it up, and walked away with his nose in the air, saying: “I am sure they are sour.”
Now identify the cognitive dissonance in this real case from Leon Festinger.
What does conformity look like?
Sometimes we conform because "everybody else is doing it."
Sometimes we conform because we assume others know better.
Normative Social Influence
influence that occurs because we want to be accepted by others
Informational Social Influence
influence that occurs when we believe others may know the appropriate action or answer better than we do
Solomon Asch
studied conformity with a line length experiment
one person was the subject, others were confederates
The Chameleon Effect
We imitate the body language of others.
Bargh, J. A. & Chartrand, T. L. (1999).
Stanley Milgram
Conducted possibly one of the most famous experiments in psychology
Participants were instructed to administer "shocks" to a "learner" if they answered incorrectly.
(Really the learner was an actor and the machine was not real.)
63% of the participants complied with instructions and "shocked" people into the danger zone
Debate over the ethics of the experiment
The question: Why do people obey (especially when what they are doing is wrong)?
Video: Primetime Basic Instincts -
The Milgram Experiment
How do groups influence us?
Social Facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others
occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
Memory trick: "Fans facilitate."
Conformity and obedience aside, what other ways are we impacted by groups?
Social Loafing
tendency for people to put forth less effort when working in a group
This guy!!
loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations where people are anonymous
sometimes called mob mentality
University of Massachusetts after the Super Bowl http://photos.masslive.com/republican/2012/02/umass_riot_following_patriots_loss_2512_16.html
Egyptian Soccer Riot: 75 people killed
and then, of course, there's...
Group Polarization
When we are part of a group where every member holds the same opinion, our opinions get stronger the more we discuss.
When we care more about everyone getting along (i.e. no difference of opinion or conflict), people can make very bad decisions.
You and your friends talk each other into not doing homework anymore. It sounded like a good idea when you came up with it??
A company has a meeting with its CEO to roll out a new product, and no one wants to disagree with the CEO and risk looking bad. The product rolls out and is terrible. Everyone loses their jobs as the company goes out of business.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members
involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
A stereotype is a generalized belief about a group of people
Take the Implicit Prejudices Test at Harvard

When the page loads, click on the Demonstration button. You can also be a research participant, but that requires more info and time, so you may want to do that one at home.
This can be especially true in the case of...
Scientific American Frontiers:
Hidden Motives, Part 2 - Hidden Prejudices
(Jump to 9:35)
Them vs. Us?
“Us”- people with whom one shares a common identity
What happens when people identify strongly with one group?
“Them”- those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup
Ingroup Bias
tendency to favor one’s own group
For example...
Scapegoat Theory
prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Just World Phenomenon
tendency of people to believe the world is just
people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
How can we eliminate ingroup bias?
Muzafer Sherif
Robbers Cave Experiment: Took boys to summer camp and established strong ingroup/outgroup philosophy
At first:
Leaders proposed series of competitive interactions that led to 3 changes between groups and within groups
within-group solidarity
negative stereotyping of other group
hostile between-group interactions
But then:
Leaders created an "emergency" that required cooperative effort from all groups (breakdown in water supply)
establishment of superordinate goals
stereotypes are diluted when people share individuating information
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Frustration- Aggression Principle
principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression
A stereotype is a generalized belief about a group of people
Cooperation, Attraction and Altruism
Social Trap
We pursue our own interests and in doing so, we hurt others and ourselves.
What makes us like others?
What makes us help others?
Mere Exposure Effect
Different Kinds of Love
Passionate Love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another
usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
Companionate Love
deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
With friends or significant others, we expect...
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for others
Although, research does show that the ingredients for our liking another are:
physical attractiveness (which is very culture-specific)
Would you help?
The Kitty Genovese Story
The Bystander Effect
tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social Exchange Theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

Superordinate Goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction
(long name, but simple idea):
GRIT puts the social exchange theory into work when countries are trying to negotiate disputes.
One country initiates a small act as a sign that they want to reduce tension; then the other country reciprocates.
The exchange then continues hopefully avoiding war or surrender.
The End! (of Chapter 18)
Hopefully we all live happily ever after with each other!

Brain Games, Season 5: Peer Pressure
(Amazon Digital Content)
Full transcript