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Transcript of Timeline
Jamestown is founded...
In the year 1607, The Virginia Company sent three small ships to the Chesapeake Bay. After a rough journey, and a long winter ahead, the new Virginians needed help. A man named John Smith struck a deal with the Powhatan Confederacy, and helped the colonists survive for a little while. But too soon everyone began to starve. A cash crop, tobacco, saved the settlement.
It didn't seem like it then, but the perseverance of the colonists played a huge role in the making of a new nation. Jamestown was about to die off, just like the towns before it, but the colonists did not give up, even during a starving time. They got smart, and grew a cash crop; even though King James hated tobacco. This is a small action of independence.
How did we become a free nation?
Pilgrims sail for America
A group of Separatists, known as Pilgrims, came back to England after fleeing to the Netherlands to escape religious persecution. They came back to England to board a ship (the Mayflower) and make way for the new world in 1620.
After settling in a town they named Plymouth(near Cape Cod area), the Pilgrims received help from the Wampanoag tribe; this saved their lives. The Pilgrims and the tribe all celebrated together at a feast, now known as Thanksgiving.
While on the Mayflower, a group of forty or so Pilgrims put together the colonies' first form of self-government.
I don't know about you, but when people start making their own forms of government, it seems like they are becoming quite independent.
They are starting to rule themselves already.....
Delegates from seven colonies came together at one special meeting.
Albany, New York, June 1754.
The delegates met with the Iroquois tribe, seeking an alliance.
The tribe denied, but at least the Albany Plan of Union was created.
Ben Franklin led it, in hopes of the colonies uniting. This too, was denied.
After all was said and done, the Albany Conference accomplished a lot.
Even though the colonists were shot down by the Iroquois, one good thing came out of the conference.
Like stated before, the Albany Plan of Union was rejected.
But the idea of uniting for defense was still thrown out there for the new colonists.
That is why it contributed to independence.
French and Indian War
The French and Indian war was between the British (colonies), and the French. The Native Americans fought for the French.
The French and Indian War was the match that lit the fire of independence.
England needed a way to pay for the war afterward, so they taxed the new colonists.
The French and Indian War caused a domino effect of new taxes, laws, and the Proclamation Line(will show up later).
These changes infuriated the people, and put them in independence mode.
The Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III.
It stated that the colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains; this was to keep peace with the natives.
The Proclamation of 1763 was the first action that pitted the colonists against England.
They had just won territory from the French, and they wanted to spread out. But Great Britain told them no.
What else could they do but dream of freedom?
American Revenue Act of 1764
The American Revenue Act of 1764, also known as the Sugar Act, was a raise in tax on imports of:
New taxes were also put on....
Pamphlets floated around the new colonies and word spread of the rage.
The colonists realized they had something in common; a hatred for the way they were being treated.
(Small step to independence-sharing a goal.)
The Currency Act of 1764 was to slow inflation.
It banned the colonists' use of paper money. They
use the paper money to repay loans.
The Currency Act was a step closer to our independence because.....
Well, it made more people angry. Really, that is basically all that was happening up until the Revolutionary War(featured later in the Prezi).
The farmers and artisans got angry, because they use paper money fluctuation to their advantage.
The Stamp Act was a tax on almost all printed materials.
This was the first direct tax the British had placed on the colonists.
This was important to our freedom because....
Questions and debates began to spring up about the British. We were becoming more and more doubtful of the rule we were under. There was more talk of a revolution.
On October, 1765, the Stamp Act Congress issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances.
It was drafted John Dickinson.
They thought it was wrong for parliament to tax them, and they asked parliament to repeal the Stamp Act.
This is where the famous quote is from...
"No taxation without representation!"
Long story short, the Declaration of Rights and Grievances helped the fight for freedom spread.
People started boycotting all British goods.
The Stamp Act hurt both the colonists and England. The Stamp Act was repealed.
Then Parliament passed the Declaratory Act; this was to prove their authority.
The Declaratory Act only meant that Parliament could make laws for the colonies.
Both contributed to our independence because Great Britain made it clear they weren't backing down; even if the colonists started to fight back.
Two major events happened in 1766:
The Revenue Act of 1767 was part of the Townshend Acts. New customs duties were put on items(glass, lead, paint), and violators of the new act were tried unfairly.
The Sugar Act also allowed the British to take belongings if people could not prove they weren't smuggled.
Like the Sugar Act, British soldiers could take personal belongings under "certain circumstances".
Except this time, the use of writs of assistance were legalized.
So now, British officers could go wherever they pleased to look for evidence of smuggling.
This just made the colonists ANGRIER... if that's even possible.
The reaction to this definitely made us closer to independence.
Check out what happened next.
John Dickinson writes again!
He published a series of essays; Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania.
Dickinson wrote about where the right to tax lies. He also wrote about the colonists coming together to resist the acts.
Dickinson's words obviously inspired, because the Massachusetts assembly started organizing to resist England.
Sam Adams and James Otis
worked together to draft a "Circular letter".
The letter was intended to circulate to other colonies, but the British officials shut it down.
The letter and it's destinations are important to history, because the colonists of Massachusetts were trying to communicate with other colonies, basically behind Great Britain's back.
This proved the colonies to be closer to each other.
In August, 1768, merchants of Boston and New York responded to the letter withdraw (that happened February, 1768).
They signed agreements to stop importing goods from Britain.
This helped us go from being dependent to independent because we started to document our "crazy" decisions at the time. People must remember that treason was a crime, punishable by death, during this time period. But the colonists took the risk.
In the March of 1769, Philadelphia's merchants joined the boycott.
This proves to England that the boycott is spreading. It is not just contained to one rebellious little town.
It also gave more hope to colonists; if Philadelphia joined, why don't we?
Britain "dissolved" Virginia's House of Burgesses.
The Virginia Resolves are passed. They said that only Virginia's House of Burgesses could tax Virginians.
A convention is called to block the sale of British goods in VA. (This contributes to boycott.)
The Virginia Resolves showed independence; that is why Great Britain got scared, and "dissolved" the House.
It showed independence because despite England's rules, Virginian's still made their own laws about taxing.
They continue to defy the King of England.
The Boston Massacre
After Britain sent troops to the Boston, the colonists were not happy.
The people teased the soldiers, and shots were fired into the crowd.
Five colonists died, and six were wounded.
Britain repealed all taxes except the tea tax; to uphold authority.
Some say the massacre set off the revolution.
All in all, the chaos contributed to our freedom.
A ship named Gaspee was burned by the colonists.
Committees of correspondence were created. This was so the colonies could communicate and keep Great Britain in check.
The Virginia House of Burgesses got a letter from Rhode Island.
The letter was asking for help, after a British commission took suspects to England for trial.
The letter led to the committees(Thomas Jefferson's idea), and the committees led to independence.
Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773, after the British East India Company was knee deep in debt.
Merchants became furious; they were being bypassed because Britain could now sell directly to people. Also, the tea was now cheaper than smuggled tea.
The merchants were now on board with the idea of revolution.
The Boston Tea Party:
Around 150 colonists, disguised as Native Americans, dumped British tea into the Boston Harbor.
The Coercive Acts:
Laws were passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
The Boston Port was shut down.
The colonists decided the acts were intolerable; hence the alternative name, Intolerable Acts.
These acts led to independence because they were the last straw for the colonists. The Coercive Acts were part of the Intolerable Acts.
A month after the Coercive Acts, the
was put into effect.
The act was the second part of the Intolerable Acts, and it gave the King power Quebec and more.
Everyone was outraged, and got even MORE people on the side of the patriots.
The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia.
Delegates discussed their opinions....
Many believed it was time to fight.
The Revolution is beginning.
The meeting discussed our future, and gave us freedom.
Shots were fired at Lexington and Concord.
"The shot heard 'round the world."
General Gage came to steal the local militia's supplies. Some thought he was coming to arrest the Massachusetts Provincial Congress; which is what he was ordered to do.
The colonists hid the arsenal, and faced off the British soldiers.
This was a turning point, because even though they were wiped out, they
A local militia surrounded the British in Boston.
Even after the British crushed a militia in Lexington.
More local soldiers were brave enough to surround the British.
They didn't back down after the trigger was pulled.
The Second Continental Congress elected George Washington to command the Continental Army.
This helped us make way for independence, because General George Washington literally lead us to victory.
Without him as our general, would we have won the Revolutionary War?
The Continental Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III.
King George III denied to even read the peace offering.
With this, came more fighting. When the smoke clears, we will be a free country.
Thomas Paine published "Common Sense".
The pamphlet got people to attack King George III, instead of just Parliament, for a change.
It was very persuasive, so it definitely contributed to our freedom.
The Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence.
This made our independence official. It was a document signed by many people, sent to the King, declaring independence. We were now the United States of America.
This angered the King, but this is what the colonists wanted. They were basically saying...
"What are you gonna' do about it?!?!"
This led to the King making us angrier.
It was a constant back and forth.
It was a ship that constantly terrorized the colonists.
This showed Britain how serious we were, and gave other Americans courage.