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Robert Matthew

on 1 November 2018

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Transcript of Astronomy

Second asteroid belt beyond orbit of Neptune
I. Astronomy
I. Astronomy
I. Astronomy
I. Astronomy
I. Astronomy
I. Astronomy
II. Celestial Observations
Astronomy - The study of objects and matter outside Earth's atmosphere
B.) Galaxies - A system of billions of stars, has distinct shapes
C.) Stars - Hot balls of gas/plasma (mostly helium and hydrogen)
D.) Planets - Large bodies that orbit around a star
E.) Comets and Asteroids
Evolution of a Star
Stars seem to be same distance
Depth perception disappears as objects are farther away
A.) Universe - Everything known to man, contains billions of galaxies
Estimated to be 14 billion years old
Big Bang Theory - Universe originated from a giant explosion (expanding)
1. Red Shift (Doppler Effect) - Everything moving away from us, red color
2. Cosmic background radiation - Left over heat
Bar Spiral
Form when clouds of matter contract until fusion occurs and giant amounts of energy are released
Stars differ in size, temperature and age (life cycle)
Some stars contain solar systems (planets/comets/asteroids)
1.) Interior Planets - Terrestrial, rocky, few moons, smaller
2.) Exterior Planets - Gaseous, many moons, very large (known as gas giants or jovian planets)
1.) Comets - Rocky core surrounded by ice and gas, leave large tails in the sky when heated approaching the sun
2.) Asteroids - Solid rocky body orbiting the sun (asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter)
*Diagram on back of notes
A.) Celestial Objects - Objects in the sky outside earth's atmosphere (stars, comets, planets, etc.)
II. Celestial Observations
B.) Celestial Sphere - Apparent dome surrounding overhead (like a planetarium)
Zenith - Imaginary point directly above a particular point
North, south, east and west measurement
II. Celestial Observations
C.) Describing Celestial Positions
Azumith - What direction the object is
Top View
Side View
Altitude - How high the object is above the horizon (angle above horizon)
II. Celestial Observations
D.) Apparent Motions of Stars
Polaris is stationary
All stars rotate 15°/hour around Polaris
Creation Theory - Belief that the universe created by supernatural being
III. Motions of the Sun
A.) Suns apparent daily path varies with the seasons
III. Motions of the Sun
C.) Noon time position of the sun is never directly overhead north of 23.5° N (never overhead in NY)
B.) Sun's apparent daily path is an arc
D.) Point of sunrise and sunset vary with the seasons (due to tilt of Earth axis - 23.5° tilt)
1. Spiral, Bar Spiral, Elliptical, Irregular
3. 14 billion years old
2. The universe originated from an extremely large explosion

1. Find the star 40 Eridani B and state the temperature, luminosity, color and relative size.

III. Motions of the sun
E.) Length of daylight varies with the season
June 21 - Summer solstice (most hours of daylight)
December 21 - Winter solstice (least hours of daylight)
September 21/March 21 - Fall/Spring equinox (12 hours of daylight everywhere)
III. Motions of the Sun
F. Apparent diameter of the sun varies in a cyclic manner during the year (distance varies)
IV. Motions of the Moon
A.) Moon revolves around the Earth
IV. Motions of the Moon
B.) Apparent diameter of the moon varies in a cyclic manner
IV. Motions of the Moon
C.) Gravity from moon (and sun) causes the tides
IV. Motions of the Moon
D.) Phases of the moon - Change in the amount of luminated surface of the moon as seen from Earth
2 high tides/2 low tides per day
6 hours between tides
Distance between Earth and moon varies
IV. Motions of the Moon
Eclipses - Two kinds, lunar and solar
Lunar Eclipse - When Earth is in between sun and moon (moon in Earth's shadow)
Solar Eclipse - When moon is in between sun and Earth (Earth in moon's shadow)
Moon takes 27 1/3 days to go around Earth
IV. Motions of the Moon
C.) Tides affected by Earth spinning as well as moon moving around Earth
Spring Tide - Tides are at their maximum: Earth, moon, sun make a line (new and full moon)
Neap Tide - Tides are at their minimum: Earth, moon, sun make right angle (quarter moons)
29 1/2 days to complete one phase cycle
V. Real Earth Motions
A. Rotation - Spin on the axis
V. Real Earth Motions
Evidence of Rotation
Gives us days/nights
rotates 15°/hour
Axis of rotation tilted 23.5°
1. Foucault Pendulum - Pendulum swings in same path under rotation of Earth
2. Coriolis Effect - Winds on Earth bend to the right in the northern hemisphere, to the left in the southern hemisphere
V. Real Earth Motions
B.) Revolution - Earth traveling in an orbit around the sun
Gives us years (about 1°/day)
V. Real Earth Motions
Evidence: You see different constellations throughout the year
V. Real Earth Motions
C.) Rotation and Revolution - The Earth tilted on its axis along with the movement around the sun give us seasons
More direct sunlight = warmer temperatures
1. What name is given to moon phases when the moon is going from a new moon to a full moon?
V. Real Earth Motions
C. Rotation and Revolution - Tilted 23.5°
More sun during summer, less sun during winter
23.5°N = Tropic of Cancer - Direct sunlight June 21st
23.5°S - Tropic of Capricorn - Direct sunlight December 21st
3. What is the name of this moon phase?
2. What type of eclipse can the moon shown make?
1. If an orbit's eccentricity is 1, what will it look like? What about when it is 0?

2. Using your ESRT, which planet in our solar system has the second most circular orbit around the sun?

3. If the distance between the two foci is 8cm and the length of the major axis is 32cm, what is the eccentricity of the ellipse?
VI. Models of the Solar System
Geocentric - Earth in the center of the Universe
Ancient Greek civilizations believed this (Ptolemy)
VI. Models of the Solar System
Geocentric Model Explains:
Motions of the stars and sun
Moon phases
VI. Models of the Solar System
Heliocentric - Sun is the center of the solar system
Nicolaus Copernicus came up with this model
Galileo Galilei supported this model, opposed church in 17th century
VI. Models of the Solar System
Heliocentric Model Explains:
Motions of the stars/sun
Moon phases
Foucault pendulum and coriolis
Retrograde motions of the planets
VI. Models of the Solar System
Does not Explain Well:
Foucault's Pendulum and Coriolis Effect
Retrograde motions of planets
VII. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
A.) Planets travel in ellipses, not circles
VII. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
A.) Eccentricity =
distance between focus points
length of major axis
VII. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
B.) Planets cover equal areas over equal times
Each section is equal in the ellipse
VII. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
C.) The farther a planet is from the sun, the longer the period of revolution
More distance the object must travel the further away it is
1. What is the main reason for the seasons?
2. Which position below represents summer in the northern hemisphere?
3. Following the Earth's orbit going counterclockwise, which position has to be fall and which position has to be spring in the northern hemisphere?
VIII. Force and Energy of Celestial Objects
A.) Gravity - Attractive force between any 2 bodies that have mass
1. Larger mass = more gravity
2. Farther apart = less gravity
VIII. Force and Energy of Celestial Objects
If mass of one object is doubled, gravity is doubled

If both are doubled, gravity is quadrupled
If distance is doubled, gravity is decreased by factor of 4
VIII. Force and Energy of Celestial Objects
B.) Energy
1.) Kinetic Energy - Energy of motion (faster the object, more kinetic energy)
2.) Potential Energy - Stored energy (slower the object the more potential energy)
1. What is one example for evidence of earth's rotation and one example of evidence of earth's revolution

2. Which of the time periods below will the northern hemisphere continuously decrease in daylight hours?

A. December 5th - June 21st
B. March 21st - September 21st
C. June 21st - December 21st
D. September 21st - February 21st

3. Put the planets of the solar system in order going from most elliptical to least elliptical
VIII. Force and Energy of Celestial Objects
Perihelion - Position in Earth's orbit that is closest to the sun (January 3rd)
Aphelion - Position in Earth's orbit that is furthest from the sun (July 4th)
Front of Big Dipper points to Polaris
Only directly overhead during the year between Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N) and Tropic of Capricorn (23.5°S)
Seasons due to duration and intensity of insolation
1. Which path of the sun most likely represents December 21st?
2. According to the diagram, in which direction does the sun rise and set on June 21st?
3. How many hours of daylight will New York State have when the sun follows path B?
More indirect sunlight = colder temperatures
According to the ESRT, which planet has an eccentricity more than Jupiter but less than Mars?
Calculate the eccentricity of a planet if the distance between the foci is 10.2cm and the length of the major axis is 20.5 (round to the nearest thousandth)
What is the difference between the geocentric model and heliocentric model of the solar system?
Follow up Questions:

2. What star has a luminosity of about 80, temperature of 4500°K, and has an orange/yellow color?
3. What is the largest and smallest planet in the solar system (give diameters in km)?
4. Compare the distances between the inner planets to the distances between the outer planets.
5. What planet has the highest density? The lowest?
0° = Equator - Direct Sunlight March/September 21st
Lab 9 - Path of the Sun
Questions to Consider During Lab
What direction does the Sun rise and set?
How does this change during the year?
How does the overall path of the sun change during the year?
What direction is the noon time sun during the year?
When is the sun the highest and lowest in the sky during the year?
1. List the planets in order from largest to smallest

2. List the color, temperature, relative size, luminosity, and group of the star Rigel

3. What are the differences between the 4 Jovian planets and the 4 terrestrial planets?
3. Write down two things you believe would happen if the eccentricity of the Earth was greater
1. Is there a relationship between distance from the Sun and eccentricity of the planets' orbits? If so, what is it?
2. What is the relationship between distance between focus points and eccentricity?
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