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The Environmental Crisis

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Istvan Csatari

on 2 September 2015

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Transcript of The Environmental Crisis

The Environmental Crisis
István Csatári
istvan.csatari@istockmethod.com
Environmental Crisis
Environment
Definition:

Environment literally means surrounding and
everything that affect an organism during its lifetime
is collectively known as its environment.
1. resource

2. pollution

3. protection
Natural
1
Built
Social
3
3
1
2
2
input
output
resource
waste
product
Overview of the top 10 environmental issues of our recent century
Istanbul University
by
TOP 10
depletion
output
waste
Issues are strongly related to each other!
POPULATION GROWTH
Net gain of one person in every 15 second!
All the other problems are the direct or indirect consequences of the rapid population growth!
CENTRAL PROBLEM!
Why? How?
Let's discover it!
100 % waste-free technology doesn't exist yet!
Limitless and uncontrolled
Keyword:
1.
WASTE MANAGEMENT
2.
CONSUMPTION!
Simply all the

by-products

of the production and consumption, which can not be directly and favourably used for the manhood (in any human activity), are considered as waste.
WHAT IS
WASTE

?
I. Origin
Waste Classification
II. Consistence
A, From production

B,

Communal
A.1.
Industrial
A.2.
Agricultural
A.3.
Service
B.3.
Household
B.2.
Public
B.1.
Institutional
Hazardous
Non-Hazardous
There is
no direct
negative impact on the human body
A.1.

Carcinogenic
A.2.

Toxic
A.3.

Mutagenic
A.4.

Terratogenic
Combination of these effects can happen!
A.5.
Radioactive
* The
codes
of the mentioned categories are appointed
by the author
. If you would like to investigate in detail, please visit the following...
http://www2.epa.gov/learn-issues/learn-about-waste

U
nited
S
tates
(United States Environmental Protection Agency)
US EPA
... in the
and ...
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/

E
uropean
U
nion
... in the
European Commission
The
collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products.
Waste management encompasses management of all processes and resources for
proper handling of waste materials
, from maintenance of waste transport trucks and dumping facilities to compliance with health codes and environmental regulations.
WHAT IS
WASTE MANAGEMENT ?
PRIORITIES

IN WASTE MANAGEMENT
POLLUTION
3.
Air pollution
Soil pollution
Visual, Noice and Light pollution
Industry (generally combustion)
Untreated industrial and communal waste water
Oil spilling
Deforestration (firing)
Traffic
DIRECT POLLUTION
Runoff from various areas
Untreated industrial and communal waste water
Agriculture
Traffic
Urban areas
Mine spoils
Solid waste
Agriculture
Water vapour
1. Intensified greenhouse effect
Hydrogen sulfide
water soluble
it decreases the pH of the precipitation
Halogenic-carbohydrates (especially Freon-12)
Soot, Smoke + Fog
2
(CH
4
, Methane
(CO
)
)
, Carbon-dioxide
2
O
)
(N
,Nitrous oxide
(H
2
O
)
(H
2
S
)
2. Sea and soil acidification
3. Smog
4. Ozone layer depletion
1. 2. 4.
Find them in details in the coming flywheels
Water pollution
Hello!
I am an ALGA.
I really like when more nutrient e.g.
P
hosphoru
s
and
N
itrogen flow into the lakes. Thanks to the

fertilizers, industrial and communal waste water,

that helps me to
proliferate
very rapidly.
This phenomenon called
algal blooms
.
Simply,
we are not producing oxygen (photosynthesis) during the night (absence of light), but we are consuming
it,
as we are also breathing.
I am
sorry
that the
fishes die
as a consequence of the
low

dissolved

oxygen

content of the water.
In addition, some of my friends produce
neurotoxins
.
Hey!
I am a
HEAVY METAL!
My name is

Cadmium

(Cd).
Some

of my relatives are the
Chromium

(Cr), the

Zinc

(Zn), the

Manganese

(Mn), the

Lead

(Pb) and the

Mercury

(Hg). We are generally coming from the

industrial and municipal waste water.

However, sometimes

we can be leached from the soil too. Algae and plants take us up. Therefore, we can

be easily
introduced into the food chain

and can be

accumulated in the human body.
We are
TOXIC
in different concentrations!
Ciao!
I am a BACTERIA!
My name is
Salmonella typhi
. I have a huge family.
I am sure,
you remembe
r our
last meeting!

communal waste water

as well.
My accomodation is the

spoilt foods
, but I feel myself comfortably
in the
surface and ground water

too.
in the
Therefore, I can appear
We are
PATHOGENIC!

HI!
Generally
I am
spilled into the water
from the
tanker accidents or from traffic routes
. I form a
thin layer
on the water surface, which
prevents the gas exchange
between the water and air. Unfortunately I am
responsible
of the
death of many fishes, turtles, birds
and
other animals.
I am
Meanwhile somewhere in a polluted soil...
We are the common pollutants in the soil!
But who is that guy
coming over there?
He is
He is the
simpliest aromatic hydrocarbon

and also

common here. Benzene is a natural constituent
BENZENE.
of crude oil, and is one of the most basic

Because it has a high octane

component of gasoline
, composing a few percent

of its mass.
He is
mutagenic and carcinogenic!
petrochemicals.
number, it is an

important
Come!
Let's introduce you to him
!

the ground water!
Let's
Pollute
Wait!
Visual, noice and light pollutions
cause
stress
and insomnia, increase the number of the heartbeats. Thus they
promote the cardiovascular disases.
Absorption
Transmission
Transport
Immission
Emission
Source
Dry or wet deposition
Deflation
Leaching
Saturation
Dry or wet deposition
Wind
transport
Evaporation,
INDIRECT POLLUTION
2.
1. Local
(e.g. algal bloom at the Lake Balaton)
( e.g. cyan in the Tisza in 2002 or Salmonella Salmonella
2. Regional
1.
3.
3. Continental
Chernobyl, 1986
4.
4. Global
Intensive
greenhouse effect
(climate change)
Ozone layer depletion
and
(environmental science expert; Founder of iStockMethod)
"We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children"
/Native American Proverb/
OIL!
Therefore, act local, but think global!
4.
OZONE LAYER DEPLETION
The Electromagnetic spectrum of the sunlight
Visible
UV C, UV B, UV A
UV range has got importance in this topic
Health impact of the ultraviolet light
When it reaches an organism, UV is strong enough to break its DNA.

If it reaches the surface water (especially lakes and oceans), it prevents the growth of the alga. Since alga (planktons) are the ground of the production, the human beeing is definitely dependent on the ecological balance of the oceans.

When UV light has got a contact with the human skin, the DNA breaking effect appears and causes cancroid.
How could the life spread out all over the planet?
OZONE LAYER
UV C
UV B
UV A
(harmless)
OZONE
3
(O
)
The triatomic oxygen is called ozone. The
formation
and
destruction
procedure of ozone is
maintained by
the
ultraviolet light
and
result its absorption
in the stratosphere.
Ozone production
O
O
...and causes it to split into two free oxygen atom.
O
O
O
2
O
2
The free oxygen atoms collide with molecules of oxygen...
O
3
O
3
...to form ozone molecules.
O
2
High energy ultraviolet radiation strikes an oxygen molecule...
Ozone destruction
O
3
Ozone absorbs a range of ultraviolet radiation...
O
O
2
...splitting the molecule into one free oxygen atom and aone molecule of ordinary oxygen.
O
3
O
The free oxygen atom can then collide with an ozone molecule...
O
2
O
2
...to form two molecules of oxygen.
This phenomenon and the
ozone concentration
*
in the stratosphere naturally
used to be well-balanced!
*
10 ppm ( 1 ozone molecule/100.000 molecule in the atmosphere)
BUT...
Carbon-tetrachloride
4
CCl
3
Br
CH
Methyl-bromide
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
CCl
2
F
2
Freon- 12
Ultraviolet radiation strikes the CFC molecules...
Cl
Cl
F
Br
... and disconnects the chlorine, fluorine and bromine atoms.
O
3
Cl
O
2
Cl
Since the ozone is easily able to react with any other elements, the mentioned atoms start to destruct the ozone molecules.
Due to the global atmospheric circulation, the
CFCs and other ozone depletives can be transported around the globe
. They are becoming more effective with a decreasing temperature. Therefore, the lowest ozone concentration has been reported to be formed over the Antarctic.
http://biophysics.sbg.ac.at/atmo/ozone.htm
CLIMATE CHANGE
The Greenhouse Effect
This phenomenon happens in the Troposphere, like all the climatic events. Let's check
how does the sunshine keep the atmosphere warm!?
The Electromagnetic spectrum of the sunlight
The visible spectrum is important in this topic.
Some
solar radiation is reflected

and

dispersed
by the atmosphere but
some passes through the clear atmosphere
and reaches the Earth's surface. (Do not forget that we are talking about the
visible range of the sunshine
)
Here
some
of the radiation is again
reflected
by the Earth's surface, but it
also adsorbs
a considerable amount of light (electromagnetic energy).
The s
urface emits its energy
into the atmosphere as an
infrared
radiation.
Greenhouse Gases
But
some is retained
by the
Some
of the infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere and is
lost
in the space.
Greenhouse gases absorb the infrared radiation reflected and released by the Earth's surface, and trap the heat in the atmosphere.
GENERAL GREENHOUSE GASES
Carbon dioxide
CO
2
CH
4
Carbon tetrahydroxide (methane)
H
2
O
Water vapor
N
2
O
Dinitrogen monoxide (nitrous oxide)
36-70 %
9-26 %
4-9 %
Efficiency
?
All these gases are natural constituents of the atmosphere!
BUT...
5.
Fertilizers
I just don't care!
RESULT:
Increased greenhouse effect!
Human activity
Global warming
Melting of the polar bergs and gleciers
Decrease of the surface's albedo
More radiation absorbed by the oceans and Earth's surface
Thawing of the glacial tundra soil
Expansion of the marshlands
Methane production in the marshes
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
Outcome 1.
Outcome 2.
Some important outcomes of the global climatic shift
Challenges in the agriculture
More water needed for irrigation
Desertification
Spreading of the undesirable pests and strongly competitive weeds.
Changes of the ecosystems
Salinization of the soil
Global forest decline
Precipitation shifts
Decreasing biodiversity
Effect on the migration of the species
Decreasing crop yield
Frequent forest fire
Allergy
6.
Nowadays there is a huge demand of water...
Proper quality
Proper quantity
Subjective
!
What
is water needed
for
?
There are different requirements...
There must be a general protocol for their evaluation and control...
EU WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE
The distribution of the water amount displays
strong spatial and temporal differences
(drought and flooding).
As drinking water?
As ground water?
As fresh water (lakes and rivers)?
For irrigation in the agriculture?
Is it waste water after its treatment?
Also Subjective!
How much
water do we need and
when
do we need it?
http://www.whiotv.com/
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
To Do List
Water Resource Management!
Develope, distribute and manage the optimum use of water resources!
Not only at the government level, but consider the domestic level too!
It must be reasonably managed due to the demands!
The abosrbed energy is
transferred into heat and warms the surface.
DEFORESTATION
7.
Reasons
To gain areas for agriculture
Direct industrial demand
Other reasons
such as the
expansion of urban areas

are not considerable in a comparison
with the above mentioned ones. However
natural and anthropogenic forest fires
are becoming more
important.
What is the biggest driver to get always new agricultural areas?
Farmers cut or burn forests to provide more room for planting crops or grazing livestock.
Look at the result!
But they can be satisfied only for a while...
Check it!
The tropical red soil is poor of nutrients!
Why?
Because the tropical climate is not suitable for humus formation!
Those
fields become useless
within years. Therefore more forest needed to be cut in order to create new agricultural fields.
Loss of forests leads to serious environmental consequences!
Forests are the lungs of the Earth
Trees absorb carbon-dioxide while they produce biomass and oxygen.
This process is called

PHOTOSYNTHESİS.
1. Deforestation with extraction and cuting of the trees
2. Deforestation with firing of the trees
Loss of carbon dioxide immission
Loss of carbon dioxide immission
Net carbon dioxide emission
INTENSİVE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
... loss of biodiversity
There are many other consequences such as...
...and soil erosion.
"
The worst thing that can happen
during the 1980s is not energy depletion, economic collapses, limited nuclear war, or conquest by a totalitarian government. As terrible as these catastrophes would be for us, they can be repaired within a few generations. The one process ongoing in the 1980s that
will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats.
This is the folly that our descendants are least likely to forgive us for."
ACIDIFICATION OF THE OCEANS AND SOILS
8.
CO
2
SO
2
Do you remember the pollution chapter?
Perfect! Then...
TRANSMISSION
SO
2
SO
2
CO
2
CO
2
SO
2
SO
2
CO
2
CO
2
SO
2
Dissolved in the air moisture
ACIDIC PRECIPITATION
OCEANS
SOİLS
CO
2
Absorbed
Consequences
In the oceans
In the soils
Acidic water destroys the corals.
It destroys the skeleton of many living organisms.
Generally leads to the decrease of the biodiversity.
Acidic rain decreases the pH of the soil...
...and triggers the desorption and mobilization of the heavy metals.
CHANGE OF LAND- USE AND LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY
9.
E.O.Wilson
Nowadays, even 30 years later the
loss of biodiversity is still one of the crucial environmental concerns!
Why?
CHANGE OF LAND-USE
Loss, degradation and fragmentation of the wildlife habitats.
ENERGY
10.
What about these?
Or maybe this one?
Non Renewable
Enough?
How long?
This should not be the purpose!
The future must be maintained by using renewable energy!
Be Conscious!
http://istockmethod.com/
https://www.facebook.com/iStockMethod?ref=hl
2013 May
The first version of this Prezi
2015 January
The updated version of this Prezi
III. Health impact
If there is
absence
or
deficiency
in the
waste management
, or the application of chemical agents is not controlled then
pollution may occur
.
I am an
inorganic pollutant
!
I am

NOT BIODEGRADABLE!
PESTICIDE!
I am a
I am generally
chemical or biological agent.
I am applied in the
agriculture, farming and horticulture
. My mission is to
kill the undiserable pest.
I am also
organic.
I am an
organic pollutant!
I am
BIODEGRADABLE
by bacterias and fungi.
There are
more complex
hydrocarbons as well. They are called as
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
I am going to explain the
importance, dynamics
and
depletion of the ozone
layer. But first of all, you need to
understand the structure
of the
atmosphere
and the
characteristics
of the
sunlight
!
Therefore the
ozone concentration
is becoming
lower
and its
protecting efficiency is decreasing
. For this reason
more ultraviolet radiation
can penetrate into the
troposphere
and
harm
the living organisms!
The average temperature of the troposphere would be about
-20 °C without the greenhouse effect.
However, the
increased greenhouse
effect, that is largely caused by the human activity
(emission of greenhouse

gases), leads
to
the intensive
global warming .
CH
4
You will find the answer in the tropical countries!
DO YOU KNOW?
There is a
birth
in
every

8 second
There is a
death
in
every

12 second
DO YOU KNOW?
5 kilos (11 pounds) of grain
1 kilos (2.2 pounds) of meat
to produce
It could feed a small village of a developing country!
Plastic utensils
300 X
Equator
thrown away every year
DO YOU KNOW?
e-waste
thrown away
every year
Full trucks
Half Equator
Cigarette butts and filters
Aluminum
Plastic diapers and sanitary pads
Styrofoam
Glass bottle
BIODEGRADATION TIME
12 years
500-800 years
200-500 years
5000 years <
around 1 million year
DO YOU KNOW?
How much oil was spilled during the Exxon Valdez?
illustration only
Exxon Valdez
10.8 million gallons
(38,800 metric tonnes)
125
olympic-sized
DO YOU KNOW?
United States
Each year
110,000 pesticide poisonings are reported
23,000 visit emergency rooms
20 people die from accidental pesticide poisoning
DO YOU KNOW?
The Montreal Protocol
on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (
at first 1987
) is an international
treaty designed to protect the ozone layer
by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. Among others the
CFCs had became under serious control.
But why CFCs are still threating the ozone layer then?
The CFCs are
strongly persistent
againts decomposition. Some of them can
last out for a hundred year.
O
3
Cl
1
is able to destruct 100.000
during its existence.
Over time, the amount of
energy sent from the sun
to the Earth’s surface
should
be about the
same as the amount of energy radiated back into space
, leaving the temperature of the Earth’s surface roughly
constant.
DO YOU KNOW?
Over
1.5 billion
people
do not have access
to clean, safe water.
Over
4 million
people
die each year
from
water related disases.
90 % of wastewater
in
developing countries
is discharged into
rivers
or streams without any treatment!
DO YOU KNOW?
Completely wanish
rain forest
100 year
at current rate
of deforestation
50 %
of the World species are
native to Amazon rainforest.
Many of them
remain unknown
!
Thank you!
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Full transcript