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Copy of UNIT 4:The Sports Performer in Action
Transcript of Copy of UNIT 4:The Sports Performer in Action
Oily fluid produced by the synovial membrane that lubricates joints and increases mobility. Without it, cartilage that cushions the bones would wear away causing arthritis at these joints
Exercise stimulates the release of Synovial Fluid at Synovial joints
An increase in the production of synovial fluid decreases friction at the joint and increases range of motion as the joint is more lubricated
Ligaments attach bone to bone and Tendons attach muscle to bone, both stabilise the joint and effect range of movement.
As we exercise and our muscles contract, heat is generated. When the temperature of ligaments and tendons rise they become more elastic and are able to stretch more over the joint. The joints warm up when we exercise and the synovial fluid becomes less viscous, this enables range of movement to increase.
When our tendons and ligaments become more elasticated they allow our joints to have a greater range of motion, allowing us stretch further before we feel pain or suffer injury
When we exercise, we make little tears in our muscles. These micro tears occur because we are stretching our muscles further then normal. When the muscle tear repairs, the muscle rebuilds stronger and
Small tear in the muscle fibres caused by overloading or putting extra strain on the muscle during exercise.
During exercise if a micro tear of the muscle occurs this encourages the muscle to rebuild and become bigger and stronger during rest and recovery. Bigger muscles will encourage stronger contractions and generate more power and strength when exercising in the future.
The process were osteoblast cells lay down new bone material to make the bone stronger and more dense
During exercise we exert pressure on our bones: this causes them to bend slightly. The repetitive impact of exercising causes bones to form new layers. This makes the bone stronger and more able to cope with exercise.
Bones that are stronger can with stand greater impacts. They are more resistant to fractures and injury. This means you can participate in high impact sports with out sustaining injury
The rate at which your body uses energy in order to function effectively.
Metabolic activity increases during exercise: the chemical reactions take place faster in our bodies, we burn more calories.
An increase in metabolic activity results in a person burning more calories and can facilitate weight management. Glucose is used during respiration preventing it from being stored as fat.
SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF EXERCISE
LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS
An increase in the size of tissue or cells
Muscular hypertrophy occurs in skeletal and cardiac muscles, when a muscle is overloaded, the muscle breaks and when it repairs it increases in size. It does this to adapt and cope with the higher workload it is now experiencing.
If skeletal muscle has hypertrophied it enables muscles to contract more forcefully and generate more power. This makes athletes stronger and can generate more forceful movements with less effort.
Bone density refers to the amount of mineral matter in a bone
Calcium is a mineral which is essential for bone growth and development. When we exercise over long periods , our bones begin to produce more calcium. This is because our bones have to cope with more impact. Muscles pull against the bone, this makes the bone rebuild and become denser.
When we exercise our bones have to absorb the impact. An increase in bone strength will allow an athlete's bones to cope better with the impact of long term exercise.
Connective tissue is a fibrous fibre found throughout the body. Ligaments and tendons are different types of connective tissue.
When tendons are stretched more than usual, they increase the number of collagen fibres in them making them thicker and stronger
A long term adaptation to exercise is that the connective tissue becomes stronger. Exercise causes the tissue to become stronger and thicker, which makes them less likely to tear and cause injury. Stronger ligaments enable joints to become more stable
Stability of a joint refers to the resistance offered by various musculoskeletal tissue that surround a skeletal joint.
When we exercise our connective tissue becomes stronger and thicker. This enables our ligaments and tendons to hold our joints together more efficiently.
Joints become more stable as the connective tissue becomes stronger and thicker. Less injury is likely to occur as our connective tissues are more resistant to snapping. Dislocations are less likely as the bones are better stabilized
Hyaline cartilage is a type of connective tissue. It is found on the surface of our joints. It has no blood supply and is very hard and slippery. Hyaline cartilage gets its nutrients from the synovial fluid. Hyaline cartlidge stops the bones rubbing together at joints and also absorbs the impact from exercise.
The hyaline cartilage becomes stronger as a long-term adaptation of exercise.
This means it can cope with the increasing demands of exercise. As the joints move the cartilage helps to cushion the joint and absorb the impact from jumping.
An organelle in the muscle where respiration occurs and energy is produced. The energy is used for the skeletal muscle to produce movement.
The muscles and the capillaries become more efficient at utilising oxygen. More capillaries surround the muscle, which means transportation of oxygen to the muscle is more effective.The size and number of the mitrochondria also increase, enabling them to generate more energy.
Our muscles become much more efficient at using oxygen so that we can make energy more quickly in our muscle cells. This means we can exercise for longer at a higher intensity without becoming fatigued.
Osteoporosis is an illness which reduces the density of bones. This means your skeleton becomes brittle and fragile. People with Osteoporosis are more likely to suffer from fractures because their bones have lost Calcium and their bone mass has been reduced.
Exercise reduces the risk of Osteoporosis as when we exercise and our bones are impacted upon our body generates more calcium and more bone mineral is laid down, making our bones stronger and more dense.
By exercising the risk of Osteoporosis can be reduced. The repeated impacts that our bones undergo when we exercise helps to strengthen and increase the density of our bones. Making fractures and injury due to impact less likely
Posture is the position which you normally hold your body. Good posture means your body is well aligned. This position puts less stress on your muscles and joints.
Exercise makes our skeletal muscles become stronger. The core muscles are able to support the weight of our upper body and this helps to improve our posture.
Better posture helps to reduce back and neck pain. As the body is well aligned it also reduces the risk of injury and dislocations, as muscles are not put under unnecessary stress.
SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE CARDIO-RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
The number of times the heart contracts and relaxes (beats) in 1 minute
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 minute (Stroke Volume x Heart Rate)
The continuous circulation of blood around the body through Arteries, Capillaries and Veins
During exercise Heart rate increases so that more oxygenated blood can be transported to the working muscles. Cardiac output increases as the heart contracts more forcefully and more frequently, increasing Stroke Volume and Heart Rate. As the heart beats more forcefully blood pressure and blood flow increase allowing more oxygenated blood to be transported to the working muscles.
An increase in Cardiac Output allows the body to circulate more nutrients and oxygenated blood, quickly to the working muscles. This allows the muscles to work for longer without fatiguing and prevents the build up of lactic acid which causes the muscles to stop working as effectively.
How blood and nutrients is circulated around the body.
when we exercise our body needs more oxygen and nutrients. These are delivered by the blood. To get oxygen around the body faster, our blood flow increases. As our body temperature rises this makes the blood less viscous and flows more easily.
As blood flow increases more oxygen reaches the working muscles allowing them to work for longer without them fatiguing. Glucose is also delivered to the muscles which is broken down through the process of respiration to produce energy
Blood flow is directed to where it is needed the most. Blood is redistributed through the vessels VASODILATING (widening) and VOSOCONSTRICTING (narrowing) If are muscles are working harder arteries surrounding the muscles Vasodilate encouraging blood flow.
During exercise the working muscles have an increased demand for blood containing nutrients and oxygen. Blood flow is redistributed to the skeletal muscle by the process of vasodilation and vasoconstriction. By making the arterioles which carry oxygenated blood narrower or more open. Blood can be directed to where its needed the most.
When the arterioles Vasodilate and widen they encourage blood flow to the working muscles allowing them to receive more oxygen and nutrients and delaying fatigue. The arterioles surrounding the muscles that are not working vasoconstrict or narrow to reduce the blood flow to these areas so that the oxygenated blood can be sent to where it is needed the most.
Lactic Acid is a by product of Anaerobic respiration, It is a waste product that causes fatigue when it builds up in the muscle.
As we exercise our muscles need more oxygen to create energy so they can continue to contract, if oxygen is not transported to the working muscles, energy is created anaerobically and lactic acid starts to build up.
As Lactic Acid accumulates in the skeletal muscle it lowers the PH of the muscles causing it to fatigue and contract less forcefully. This causes us to lower our intensity or stop exercising.
The number of breaths taken per minute
The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one breath. The average TV is 0.5 L
As we exercise our breathing rate increases from 12 bpm to 30 bpm. Our Tidal Volume increases from 0.5 L to 3.0 L per breath. These changes means that more oxygen enters the blood and is transported to the working muscles.
As we exercise, muscular activity increases and our body produces more carbon dioxide, a waste product of making energy. Carbon dioxide causes the muscles to fatigue and feel tired. It is important that the muscles get rid of the carbon dioxide as quickly as possible to prevent fatigue and sports performance decreasing.
To help reduce body temperature created by friction during exercise our body produces sweat and our blood is redirected to the surface of the skin. Sweat is released which is then evaporated from the surface of the skin; this process cools the body. Our skin becomes redder when we exercise because blood is redirected to the surface of our skin. Heat is brought to the surface and is radiated into the atmosphere.
Fluid produced by the sweat glands and secreted at the surface of the skin to reduce body temperature.
Our body works most effectively at 37 degrees, If our body temperature exceeds this, it does not work as effectively. During exercise we create friction at our joints and our muscles, to regulate our temperature we produce sweat that allows heat to be evaporated from our skin. Our blood vessels vasodilate and move closer to the surface of the skin so heat can be lost through radiation.
LONG TERM EFFECTS OF EXERCISE
Hypertrophy of the Cardiac Muscle - The muscle increases in size.
To achieve hypertrophy the body has to be overloaded. The muscle grows bigger to cope with the increase in demand. A bigger cardiac muscle can produce a larger contraction. The walls of the left ventricle become larger just as when skeletal muscle is overloaded it to becomes larger.
A bigger heart means more oxygenated blood can be pushed out of the heart per beat (Stroke Volume) This means the volume of blood being pumped around the body in minute also increases (Cardiac Output) More oxgenated blood is transported to the working muscles preventing a build up of lactic acid and delaying the onset of fatigue.
Stroke Volume is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 beat. If the left ventricle is bigger, it can hold more blood and therefore eject more blood per beat.
Stroke volume increases after prolonged exercise because the heart has grown in size and strength. The left ventricle can now hold more blood. This occurs because like skeletal muscle the heart adapts and gets bigger when it is overloaded. The chambers increase in size and the walls of the heart becomes thicker.
If a larger volume of blood is ejected per beat from the heart, more blood is being transported around the body per minute. This makes oxygen transportation to the working muscles more efficient and prevents the build up of lactic acid and delays the onset of fatigue.
As you become fitter, your heart becomes more efficient at pumping blood around the body. This means your heart can pump more blood per beat and so can beat less frequently and still maintain adequate circulation. Fitter individuals tend to have lower resting heart rates.
Prolonged and regular exercise overloads the cardiac muscle, causing it to grow in size and strength. The chambers of the heart become bigger allowing more blood to enter and be ejected per beat (Stroke Volume) this means the heart can beat less often and still maintain an adequate cardiac output (blood pumped per minute)
Having a more efficient heart means that more oxygenated blood can be circulated around the body faster. This means working muscles receive oxygen and continue to work effectively for a longer period of time before they start to fatigue. A trained athlete with a hypertrophied heart can continue exercising at higher intensities without accumulating lactic acid as when their heart rate increases, because they have a larger stroke volume they can achieve a greater overall cardiac output. This means their working muscles receive oxygenated blood for longer, delaying the onset of fatigue.
Hypertension is a chronic condition of high blood pressure. The pressure inside the arteries increases and so the heart has to work harder to to pump blood through the vessels. Hypertension can be very dangerous and can cause hear failure, strokes and kidney disease.
Regular Exercise can help to lower your blood pressure as your heart and blood vessels becomes stronger and more efficient at circulating the blood around your body. Exercise can lower cholesterol which can block the blood vessels making it more difficult for the blood to flow through.
Having a strong and efficient Cardiovascular systems allows oxygenated blood to be transported around the body faster, supplying the working muscles with oxygen and delaying the onset of fatigue. This enables an individual to work at a higher intensity for a longer duration without fatiguing. It also reduces the risks of strokes and heart disease associated with hypertension.
Vital Capacity is the maximum amount of air we can breathe out after a maximum breathe in.
Prolonged and regular exercise can increase an individuals Vital Capacity. Our lungs grow larger and can hold more air. The lungs become more efficient so a individual can get more oxygen into their body at a faster rate.
Because the lungs can hold a larger volume of air per breathe, this enables more oxygen to be inhaled into the body. This allows the transportation of oxygen to the working muscles to become more efficient. This prevents the build up of lactic acid and delays the onset of fatigue, allowing an individual to exercise for longer without tiring.
Gaseous Exchange is the process at which oxygen diffuses from the lungs into the blood stream and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood stream and into the lungs to be exhaled. When we exercise our muscles require more oxygen to produce energy, to maintain the increase in activity level. Carbon dioxide is produced as a by product of this process( aerobic respiration) and needs to be removed from the body.
Prolonged and regular exercise makes our lungs and respiratory system adapt to become more efficient at getting oxygen into the blood stream and removing carbon dioxide from the body. Our lungs become bigger, our alveoli become larger, more capillaries surround the alveoli and the muscles, we have more red blood cells which transport oxygen around the body in the blood.
These adaptations encourage oxygen to be supplied to the blood stream more efficiently enabling the muscles to continue working and delaying the accumulation of lactic acid and onset of fatigue. They also encourage the transportation of carbon dioxide out of the body. If Carbon dioxide begins to build up in the blood stream it makes the blood more acidic, the chemical reactions which take place in our body to produce energy need the blood to be neutral. When the blood becomes acidic, reactions will slow down and the production of energy will decrease
VO2 MAX is the maximum amount of oxygen a person uses in their working muscles while exercising at their maximum capacity. VO2 MAX is a good way of measuring a persons endurance performance ability.
An individuals VO2 MAX will increase if they participate in prolonged, regular exercise. Having a more effective cardio-respiratory system will enable a person to utilise larger volumes of oxygen in a minute and supply the working muscles with oxygen more efficiently, while quickly removing carbon dioxide from the body which has been produced during aerobic respiartion
A higher oxygen uptake will allow the muscles to use oxygen more efficiently and will mean that the athlete can continue working aerobically at a high intensity for a longer period of time before lactic acid accumulates and they start to fatigue.
TASK 1 - Using the information you now have, create
a poster which......
how the musculoskeletal system
SHORT TERM EXERCISE
of the musculoskeletal system
how the cardiorespiratory system
SHORT TERM EXERCISE
of the Cardiorespiratory sytem.
TASK 2 - Using the information you now have, create
a poster which......
MERIT - EXPLAIN the RESPONSES of the musculoskeletal
system to SHORT TERM exercise.
-EXPLAIN the LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS of the
musculoskeletal system to exercise
MERIT - EXPLAIN the RESPONSES of the cardiorespiratory
system to SHORT TERM exercise.
- EXPLAIN the LONG TER ADAPTATIONS of the
cardiorespiratory system to exercise.
Short term effects and long term adaptations to exercise on the Musculoskeletal system
A shot putter who's upper arm muscles have hypertrophied will be able to push the shot putt further as their muscles will contract more forcefully as they comprise of more muscle fibres. These fibres will also contract faster which will allow the shot putter to have a more powerful throw and produce a greater distance.
A gymnast will benefit from having good posture as they get judged on how aesthetic their routine looks. They have to demonstrate straight lines during handstands and having a body that is well aligned will enable them to maintain their balance more easily.
Short term effects and long term adaptations to exercise on the Cardiorespiratory System
TASK 3 - Complete the tables n your booklet
Distinction - Using 3 different sports, compare and contrast how the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems respond and adapt to exercise